Jantyik, Lili – Török, Áron
More than 25 years ago, the European Union (EU) has established a sui generis system of geographical indications (GIs) for identifying the products which quality, reputation or other characteristics are linked to their geographical origin. By the end of 2018 the official register of the European Commission (the DOOR database) included 1448 registered food products with GI label, but their number is continuously increasing. For several reasons, we examined the discounters operating in Hungary in order to estimate the market size and price premium of GI foods in Hungary. Firstly, discounters’ share in the Hungarian food retail sector is continuously growing and reaching the majority of the average Hungarian consumers. Secondly, their typical feature is that their supplies are almost constant and limited, discounters target the price sensitive consumers, so the minimum level of price premium can be defined here. In this study, we would like to estimate from below both the market size of Hungarian GI products and the price premium of GI products compared to their direct substitute products. To gather real life data, we have gone mystery shopping for a year every month (January-December 2018) to an Aldi, Lidl and Penny Market retail shop located in Budapest. We collected data of available GI products and their closest substitute products which were available in the shop and then we analysed the dataset consist of several hundreds of observations. Our results show that the number of GI products available in the Hungarian discounters is very limited, however, their supply is quite permanent. The majority of GI foods available in Hungarian discounters are Italian and the average price premium was around 43% with remarkable differences. Our results show that currently GI food products have limited importance in the Hungarian food market as they are rarely available. On the other hand, a real price premium for GI products exists in the Hungarian market and an even higher price premium might be expected in less low-price oriented food retailers.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (1) 3-18.
Download: 01_Jantyik – Török_A földrajzi árujelzős termékek helyzete a magyarországi élelmiszerdiszkontokban
Fehér, András – Farkas, Noémi Dóra – Boros, Henrietta Mónika – Véha, Miklós – Szakály, Zoltán
Health-conscious lifestyles and the consumption of foods which are considered healthy are becoming increasingly important globally and domestically. Thanks to digitisation, the consumer has a wide range of new and innovative ways to obtain useful information. Social media and its elements have reformed access to information over the past decade. The main objective of our research was to assess the impact of digitisation on healthy food consumption. In this article, we analysed particular social media platforms (Facebook, Instagram and Youtube) with a netnographic observation and examined the role of influencers in health-conscious food consumption. During secondary research, we clarified basic definitions and analysed recent and near-term trends. In the primary research, the netnographic survey was conducted in two sessions (September and October 2018 and December 2019). The aim was to broaden the research while comparing the results of the two observation sessions. Only Hungarian language sites were used for our observations. We analysed the Facebook pages and groups related to healthy eating. For the terms related to the topic under study (e.g., “healthy lifestyle” and “conscious eating”), we identified the same pages in most cases. So a given page has appeared for more than one search term. The creators of the groups typically include 4-5 keywords in the title at a time. We have analysed the number of hashtags with and without accents associated with health-conscious, free-from and plant-based nutrition. The majority of the analysed hashtags showed a tendency for their accented variants to grow more than non-accented ones in the past year. In addition, we systematized the Hungarian influencers with Youtube channel in the research topic. Based on the results, it can be stated that relatively few influencers operate a channel with a higher number of subscribers in the fields of healthy eating and healthy lifestyle. To sum up, the mention of healthy lifestyle in social media is complex and it is not tightened to health-conscious food consumption.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (1) 19-38.
Download: 02_Fehér et al_Az egészségtudatos élelmiszer-fogyasztás netnográfiai vizsgálata a digitális korban
Pető, Dorka – Fehér, András – Szakály, Zoltán
The main goal of our research was to analyze the role of health-protecting food in our daily nutrition. In our secondary research, we analyzed the generalities and characteristics of health and health behavior with the help of relevant domestic and foreign literature. We analyzed the domestic tendencies of health in details. We examined the most important characteristics of functional foods and investigated the factors of personalized nutrition. Based on a literature review, in our primary research we conducted an online questionnaire survey with 231 respondents. Our survey cannot be considered representative, however, the proportion of genders in our sample population is almost the same as the Hungarian population’s. In the questionnaire survey, we examined the frequency of consumption of health-protecting food. After that, we analyzed respondents’ perceptions of the actual health effects of health-protecting food. We have measured consumer attitudes towards health-protecting food. We analyzed the perception of potential health risks and problems from the consumer perspective. We measured the impact of various health factors on shopping. Besides, we have explored our intention to participate in personalized nutrition-related programs. Based on our research, most of the analyzed health-protecting food is consumed once or twice a week. It can be stated that the respondents considered the examined food categories less scientifically proven. We could identify the preventive behaviors of respondents for various health problems. However, there is also uncertainty in the decision of respondents in what is the right way to prevent the diseases. In this uncertain situation, only experts can provide real help to them.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (1) 39-55.
Download: 03_Pető et al_Az egészségvédő élelmiszerekkel kapcsolatos fogyasztói attitűdök vizsgálata
Farkas, Noémi Dóra – Kiss, Marietta
Healthy nutrition is becoming increasingly important in the age of endemic non-communicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol and various cancers. Moreover, due to modern eating habits, more and more people are experiencing food allergies, sensitivity or intolerance to gluten, lactose, milk protein, soy, or egg, just to mention a few. Healthy eating as prevention has become a possible solution for these problems worldwide. Furthermore, an increasing number of people simply want to pay attention to what they consume. The primary objective of this research is to showcase the attitude of consumers in Debrecen (Hungary) towards a healthy nutrition, as well as to explore the factors that influence it. This paper also aims to reveal consumers’ views on the degree to which a healthy diet can be achieved in their daily lives. Focus group interview was chosen as the method of primary data collection, in which consumers living in Debrecen, with different behaviors towards health (health preventive and health risk) took part. The acquired results from the two groups clearly reflect how consumers with dissimilar attitudes towards healthy nutrition reach differing opinions on the same issues.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (1) 57-66.
Download: 04_Farkas – Kiss_Az egészséges táplálkozás fogyasztói megítélése – Egy feltáró kutatás eredményei
Piros, Edina – Fehér, András
Nowadays new, alternative forms of sales such as parcel delivery, direct sales, telephone and the internet are playing an increasingly important role in commerce. Relevant literature and statistics prove the success of e-commerce at national and international levels. Our goal is to identify a segment of online sales where this performance is still low. Online grocery shopping has not been integrated into consumers’ life so far, compared to other market-leading product categories (clothing, footwear). During the secondary research, we conducted extensive literature analysis using national and international sources. Our main goal was to answer the questions about which product categories are popular during online shopping and what are the factors behind the development of online consumer preferences in the FMCG product categories, which are the influential advantages and disadvantages of packaged and fresh foods, and which are the sources of information that most impact customers. Overall, worldwide categories such as travel, books, music, events, fashion, IT / mobile, electronics are the most preferred product categories among consumers in the online retail environment. From its previously neglected position, online grocery shopping has grown and become one of the fastest growing area in the world. Factors behind increasing consumer interest include convenience, home delivery, 24-hour availability of online stores, and avoiding queuing. In addition, customers can easily access information before ordering through a variety of marketing communications tools. The most common information gathering tools are digital channels.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (1) 67-78.
Download: 05_Piros – Fehér _Az élelmiszer-vásárlói magatartás vizsgálata online környezetben – Szakirodalmi áttekintés
Foltin, Bianka – Kiss, Virág Ágnes
Nowadays, movement and maintaining health are becoming more and more prominent in both public life and the scientific world. In connection with this, we can meet many scientific developments and new recommendations. In the present research, we examined young athletes, primarily in terms of their eating habits, as the compilation of a proper diet contributes greatly to the ability of athletes to achieve the best possible results. The aim of the secondary search was to get acquainted with the young athletes’ health-consciousness behavior and eating habits. The primary search consisted of an online-, and paper based questionnaire as well. As far as data analysis is concerned, we only considered data given by the targeted segment of the respondents, which falls between the age of 15 and 35. For statistical analysis we used descriptive statistics and crosstabs procedure. The results revealed that the majority of the athletes eat 3-5 times a day both in preparation and competiton period. Furthermore, the overwhelming majority of athletes find conscious eating important, however, they did not find either the consumption of different health protecive or disease preventive food important. They also do not follow the latest trends in connection with sportfood.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (1) 79-88.
Download: 06_Foltin – Kiss_Fiatal versenysportolók étkezési szokásainak vizsgálata
Huszka, Péter – Huszka, Péter Barnabás – Lőre, Vendel
The birth of this publication was generated by the events of today. In the light of the research (and the literature data), it can be stated that the coronavirus epidemic that appeared in Hungary in the spring of 2020 caused panic shopping, and the freedom of choice (abundance of goods) was again replaced by consumer vulnerability like before the years of regime change. The analysis shows that 75 percent of those over the age of 60, while only 62 percent of the members of the youngest age group think it is worth piling up. It is also interesting to note that the main reason for over-buying is the creation of a contingency reserve. Larger store types, mostly with a wide range of goods, were well suited for this. Also, 33,2 % of respondents thought they had bought more to reduce the number of shopping trips (and thus presumably to slow down the spread of the virus).
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (1) 89-101.
Download: 07_Huszka et al_A koronavírus-járvány és felvásárlási láz néhány összefüggésének vizsgálata Győrben
Czine, Péter – Szakály, Zoltán – Balogh, Péter
The purpose of this study is to investigate the applicability of discrete choice experiment and thereby assess consumer preferences for margarine among students of the University of Debrecen Faculty of Economics and Business. The questionnaire was based on a focus group interview where the most important product attributes (price, fat, salt and sunflower oil content) and their levels were determined. Based on the estimates of the multinomial logit model, we concluded that increasing fat and salt content among participants reduced the sense of utility and hence willingness to pay, while we cannot found significant effect in respect of sunflower oil content.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2019. 6 (2) 3-12.
Download: 01_Czine et al_Margarinnal kapcsolatos preferenciák vizsgálata egyetemista fogyasztók körében
A growing popularity in the consumption of foods with low nutritional value is increasing amongst the preschool age groups worldwide, which is partially responsible for the increase of childhood obesity rates globally. Thus, it is vital to examine the eating behavior of preschool aged children, as these are known to effect the daily energy intake. On the contrary, gender differences could possibly also influence the food intake and therefore health-related outcomes in children. In order to investigate the relationship between the children’s eating behavior and their gender, a survey was conducted amongst the parents of children aged between 3-7 in Hungary, which included Wardle et al.’s (2001a) 35-item instrument, the Children’s Eating Behavior Questionnaire, together with questions concerning possible food allergies and demographics. The sample of size N=365 was then analyzed using SPSS via the INDSCAL method. The initial creators of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire found only one gender difference, namely that the incidence of eating fussiness was slightly higher in boys, the findings of the current study were able to verify this result together with other dissimilarities. The findings indicate that other eating behaviors can be linked to gender, including that girls’ desires to drink, which is generally higher than that of boys and that boys tend to eat slower than girls. Boys also lean towards emotional undereating, while girls have a tendency towards emotional overeating. The information above can be of great use to marketers in the food and beverage industry as well as the healthcare industry.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2019. 6 (2) 13-26.
Download: 02_Eating Behaviors of Preschool-Aged Children – Gender-Linked Differences
Holczer, Adél Judit – Kiss, Virág Ágnes
One of the 21st century’s well-known megatrend is the healthy lifestyle and eating which is the basis of this research. We have already known some aspects of this topic, but the parental health consciousness and the examination of eating preferences is not as well known as it has to be, so this makes this study relevant. The goal of this exploratory research was to get to know more about the parental health consciousness, their eating preferences and attitudes, so Hungarian parents were asked who have children under 14 years old to tell more about their habits and lifestyle. In the primer research an online questionnaire was used which reaches 206 people so we could make some consequences about the lifestyle and the preferences of the families in Hungary. The main parts of this research were: the importance of health and the healthy lifestyle, the form of the parental research about the topic, which sources they find the most relevant and authentic, the parental eating habits, family health, the responsibility of the parents. During the statistical analysis some segments of people could be separated whose different attitudes and preferences were shown very clearly. It reveals of the results for example that the groups have different eating habits and researching systems.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2019. 6 (2) 27-38.
Download: 03_A szülői egészségtudatosság és az étkezési preferenciáik vizsgálata a gyermekkori elhízás tükrében