1. Analysis of University Students’ Behavior Towards Online Grocery Shopping Based on the TAM-Model

Piros, Edina – Fehér, András

These days new, alternative forms of sales such as parcel delivery, direct sales, telephone and the internet are playing an increasingly important role in commerce. Relevant literature and statistics prove the success of e-commerce at national and international levels. Our aim is to identify a segment of online sales where this performance is still modest. Online grocery shopping has not been integrated into consumer’s life so far compare to other market-leading product categories (clothing, footwear). During the secondary research, we conducted extensive literature analysis using national and international sources. In the course of primary research, a questionnaire survey was conducted as a quantitative procedure. 501 students were involved from the Faculty of Economics of the University of Debrecen in this non-representative survey, in which we sought to reach as many cultures and nations as possible. Our main goal was to answer the question of the factors behind the development of online consumer preferences in the fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) product category. For this the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was applied in the primary research. The Likert scale was applied to assess the students’ position on the topic. The 18 statements underlying the analysis were adapted from the researches of Radka and Martin (2018). After the reliability test, a factor analysis was made. The variables were compressed into three factors. Because of the better understanding, the exploratory factor analysis and the data reduction were separated. Principal component analysis was made on the statements belonging to each factor. Subsequently, a cluster analysis of four was conducted or four clusters for Hungarian and foreign students. The hypothesis about the attitude towards buying food online among the FMCG products is more reserved for Hungarian students than for foreign students has been proved.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/7/2/1

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (2) 3-19.

Download: 01_Piros – Fehér_Egyetemi hallgatók online élelmiszer-vásárlói magatartás vizsgálata a TAM-modell alapján

2. The Role of the Cognitive Component of Consumer Attitude in the Image of the Pálinka

Mucha, László – Oravecz, Titanilla – Totth, Gedeon

The research aim is to explore the potential role of consumer attitude components in image development related to a traditional Hungarian alcoholic beverage, the pálinka. This study focuses on the effect of the cognitive component of attitude on image of the pálinka. The relevance of this research is the expansion of the pálinka market in recent years and the changing of the regulatory environment about homemade spirits. Distillate made at home, which product improperly called homemade pálinka, is very popular in Hungary. Based on the qualitative studies, the most important characteristics in the consumer perception of alcoholic beverage are quality, price, prestige, fashion and origin. The importance of these attributes of the most popular alcoholic beverages in Hungary was assessed by the participants on Likert scales. Homemade spirit has the most favorable attitude and in-store pálinka has the most unfavorable attitude. To understand the effect of the cognitive component, we used two types of the multiattribute attitude model of Fishbein. By using a 7-point semantic differential scale, we could graphically illustrate the consumer belief about the homemade and in-store pálinka. Image profiles on the semantic differential scales show the differences in image of the analysed alcoholic beverages. The study confirmed the advantage of homemade spirit image over in-store pálinka, points out the importance of education and information in the case of the cognitive component of consumer attitude. The reconsidering of the marketing communication of the in-store pálinka producers is very important and urgent.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/7/2/2

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (2) 21-32.

Download: 02_Mucha et al._A fogyasztói attitűd kognitív komponensének a pálinka imázsában betöltött szerepe

3. International Market Segmentation of European Countries Based on Sports and Health Consumption

Kiss, Marietta – Farkas, Noémi Dóra

Differences in development of European countries can be seen in many areas. Differences in household expenditure, income inequality and life expectancy have already been revealed by a number of previous studies. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the international variations in household health, sports and recreation spending. In our research, therefore, European countries were segmented on the basis of, among other things, household health, sports and recreation expenditures, pointing out that the level of these expenditures is related to other dimensions of development. As a result of our research, the authors managed to separate four clusters of European countries in terms of sports consumption and three clusters in terms of health consumption, with useful lessons for economic and social policy or profit-oriented companies considering international expansion in the health, sports and recreation markets.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/7/2/3

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (2) 33-49.

Download: 03_Kiss – Farkas_Az európai országok nemzetközi piacszegmentációja sport- és egészségfogyasztás alapján

4. Qualitative Analysis of Consumers’ and Experts’ Perceptions of Energy Drinks

Berencsi, Alexa – Fehér, András

Energy drinks are very popular products, as evidenced by their high soaring market value. However, perceptions surrounding beverages often take extreme forms, both among consumers and experts. Our research aim is to get closer to expert and consumer insights using qualitative methods. The study consisted of three main parts: the first was a netnographic study, while the authors successfully separated 3 online consumer groups. This was followed by a closer examination of each group. We interviewed four prominent representatives from three disciplines, asking about the differences between coffee and energy drinks and their effects on the body. This was followed by an examination of the consumer side through two focus group discussions of 8-8 people. Participants in one group are supporters of consuming energy drinks and in the other group are opponents of consuming energy drinks. Both conversations took place under the same conditions, based on a similar scenario, which included several questions as well as tasks that shaped projective techniques. The results of the research can be attributed to the statement that the assessment of energy drinks contains many contradictory elements, yet those interviewed during the research and the known literature sources all emphasized the importance of moderation.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/7/2/4

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (2) 51-63.

Download: 04_Berencsi – Fehér_Az energiaitalok fogyasztói és szakértői megítélésének kvalitatív elemzése

5. Beliefs and Misbeliefs About Plant-Based Diet Relying on the Results of an Online Research

Keller, Veronika – Bocsková, Viktória

A main current trend is healthy lifestyle and the consumption of fruit and vegetables. The assessment of healthiness of plant-based diet is not so obvious either among the population or food experts. In an online survey the knowledge, beliefs and misbeliefs about plant-based diet were analysed among members and non-members of online social media lifestyles groups. All in all, it can be stated that there are no significant relationships and differences between knowledge, attitude and perception of members and non-members. Social media users are aware of the different types of plant-based diet (vegetarian, vegan) and the positive and negative psychological effects. The associations connected to plant-based diet are the following: healthy, environmentally friendly and expensive. Only a small segment of Hungarian people follow plant-based diet. At the same the diverse and everyday consumption of fruit and vegetables is essential because of health and sustainability issues. Due to conscious nutrition and more plant-based diet, people can contribute to the protection of their own health and the Earth.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/7/2/5

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (2) 65-77.

Download: 05_Keller – Bocsková_Hitek és tévhitek a növényi alapú étrendről egy online kutatás eredményei alapján

6. Examining of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among the Hungarian Consumers

Szabó, Imola – Lehota, József

The importance of fruit and vegetable consumption is emphasized by promotions, recommendations, and domestic and foreign researches. According to the results of Hungarian research, consumers with high education and high income are the fastest to commit to a healthy lifestyle (of which regular consumption of fruit and vegetables is an integral part). The present study examines fruit and vegetable consumption through focus group interviews examining two distinct segments; full-time undergraduate students as well as full-time adults. The reason for choosing the two segments was based on the literature, according to which lifestyle research shows that the supportive family financial background of students helps to make this segment more health-conscious, while full-time adults with higher education and income are also more health-conscious consumers. Based on the results of interviews with six groups – three with students and three with full-time adults – it can be stated that among the participants the reasons for consuming fruit and vegetables are health awareness, and in many cases the family pattern is a determining, moreover important aspect that vegetables and fruits are very much loved. However, despite their commitment to a healthy lifestyle and fruit and vegetable, most of them have never heard of fruit and vegetable promotions. As a result of the focus group research, it can also be observed that income is a determining factor, especially in the face of rising prices. In addition to consumption patterns, the research also addressed the issue of branding, the results of which suggest that geographical indications are still more important than the creation of a stand-alone brand name.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/7/2/6

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (2) 79-89.

Download: 06_Szabó – Lehota_Zöldség-gyümölcs fogyasztás vizsgálata a magyar fogyasztók körében

1. The Role of GI Products in the Hungarian Food Discounters

Jantyik, Lili – Török, Áron

More than 25 years ago, the European Union (EU) has established a sui generis system of geographical indications (GIs) for identifying the products which quality, reputation or other characteristics are linked to their geographical origin. By the end of 2018 the official register of the European Commission (the DOOR database) included 1448 registered food products with GI label, but their number is continuously increasing. For several reasons, we examined the discounters operating in Hungary in order to estimate the market size and price premium of GI foods in Hungary. Firstly, discounters’ share in the Hungarian food retail sector is continuously growing and reaching the majority of the average Hungarian consumers. Secondly, their typical feature is that their supplies are almost constant and limited, discounters target the price sensitive consumers, so the minimum level of price premium can be defined here. In this study, we would like to estimate from below both the market size of Hungarian GI products and the price premium of GI products compared to their direct substitute products. To gather real life data, we have gone mystery shopping for a year every month (January-December 2018) to an Aldi, Lidl and Penny Market retail shop located in Budapest. We collected data of available GI products and their closest substitute products which were available in the shop and then we analysed the dataset consist of several hundreds of observations. Our results show that the number of GI products available in the Hungarian discounters is very limited, however, their supply is quite permanent. The majority of GI foods available in Hungarian discounters are Italian and the average price premium was around 43% with remarkable differences. Our results show that currently GI food products have limited importance in the Hungarian food market as they are rarely available. On the other hand, a real price premium for GI products exists in the Hungarian market and an even higher price premium might be expected in less low-price oriented food retailers.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/7/1/1

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (1) 3-18.

Download: 01_Jantyik – Török_A földrajzi árujelzős termékek helyzete a magyarországi élelmiszerdiszkontokban

2. A Netnographic Study of Health-Conscious Food Consumption in the Digital Era

Fehér, András – Farkas, Noémi Dóra – Boros, Henrietta Mónika – Véha, Miklós – Szakály, Zoltán

Health-conscious lifestyles and the consumption of foods which are considered healthy are becoming increasingly important globally and domestically. Thanks to digitisation, the consumer has a wide range of new and innovative ways to obtain useful information. Social media and its elements have reformed access to information over the past decade. The main objective of our research was to assess the impact of digitisation on healthy food consumption. In this article, we analysed particular social media platforms (Facebook, Instagram and Youtube) with a netnographic observation and examined the role of influencers in health-conscious food consumption. During secondary research, we clarified basic definitions and analysed recent and near-term trends. In the primary research, the netnographic survey was conducted in two sessions (September and October 2018 and December 2019). The aim was to broaden the research while comparing the results of the two observation sessions. Only Hungarian language sites were used for our observations. We analysed the Facebook pages and groups related to healthy eating. For the terms related to the topic under study (e.g., “healthy lifestyle” and “conscious eating”), we identified the same pages in most cases. So a given page has appeared for more than one search term. The creators of the groups typically include 4-5 keywords in the title at a time. We have analysed the number of hashtags with and without accents associated with health-conscious, free-from and plant-based nutrition. The majority of the analysed hashtags showed a tendency for their accented variants to grow more than non-accented ones in the past year. In addition, we systematized the Hungarian influencers with Youtube channel in the research topic. Based on the results, it can be stated that relatively few influencers operate a channel with a higher number of subscribers in the fields of healthy eating and healthy lifestyle. To sum up, the mention of healthy lifestyle in social media is complex and it is not tightened to health-conscious food consumption.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/7/1/2

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (1) 19-38.

Download: 02_Fehér et al_Az egészségtudatos élelmiszer-fogyasztás netnográfiai vizsgálata a digitális korban

3. Analyzing Consumer Attitudes Towards Health-protecting Food

Pető, Dorka – Fehér, András – Szakály, Zoltán

The main goal of our research was to analyze the role of health-protecting food in our daily nutrition. In our secondary research, we analyzed the generalities and characteristics of health and health behavior with the help of relevant domestic and foreign literature. We analyzed the domestic tendencies of health in details. We examined the most important characteristics of functional foods and investigated the factors of personalized nutrition. Based on a literature review, in our primary research we conducted an online questionnaire survey with 231 respondents. Our survey cannot be considered representative, however, the proportion of genders in our sample population is almost the same as the Hungarian population’s. In the questionnaire survey, we examined the frequency of consumption of health-protecting food. After that, we analyzed respondents’ perceptions of the actual health effects of health-protecting food. We have measured consumer attitudes towards health-protecting food. We analyzed the perception of potential health risks and problems from the consumer perspective. We measured the impact of various health factors on shopping. Besides, we have explored our intention to participate in personalized nutrition-related programs. Based on our research, most of the analyzed health-protecting food is consumed once or twice a week. It can be stated that the respondents considered the examined food categories less scientifically proven. We could identify the preventive behaviors of respondents for various health problems. However, there is also uncertainty in the decision of respondents in what is the right way to prevent the diseases. In this uncertain situation, only experts can provide real help to them.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/7/1/3

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (1) 39-55.

Download: 03_Pető et al_Az egészségvédő élelmiszerekkel kapcsolatos fogyasztói attitűdök vizsgálata

4. Consumer Perception of a Healthy Nutrition – The Results of an Exploratory Study

Farkas, Noémi Dóra – Kiss, Marietta

Healthy nutrition is becoming increasingly important in the age of endemic non-communicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol and various cancers. Moreover, due to modern eating habits, more and more people are experiencing food allergies, sensitivity or intolerance to gluten, lactose, milk protein, soy, or egg, just to mention a few. Healthy eating as prevention has become a possible solution for these problems worldwide. Furthermore, an increasing number of people simply want to pay attention to what they consume. The primary objective of this research is to showcase the attitude of consumers in Debrecen (Hungary) towards a healthy nutrition, as well as to explore the factors that influence it. This paper also aims to reveal consumers’ views on the degree to which a healthy diet can be achieved in their daily lives. Focus group interview was chosen as the method of primary data collection, in which consumers living in Debrecen, with different behaviors towards health (health preventive and health risk) took part. The acquired results from the two groups clearly reflect how consumers with dissimilar attitudes towards healthy nutrition reach differing opinions on the same issues.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/7/1/4

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (1) 57-66.

Download: 04_Farkas – Kiss_Az egészséges táplálkozás fogyasztói megítélése – Egy feltáró kutatás eredményei