1. Functional Foods, Consumer Attitudes and Personalized Nutrition

The dramatic spread of the so called diseases of civilization have occurred in the last decade worldwide. Deaths caused by them have long been of the highest rate among all causes of deaths. In parallel with the spread of the diseases of civilization, population of developed countries is increasingly ageing that increases the number of inactives and those who rely on health treatment. The outlined factors pose new challenges to the food industry: it requires the development new foods that slow down the spread of the diseases of civilization that hit the humankind through their health care effect, and at the same time provide longer life in health for the ageing societies. In the decade after decoding the human genome an extremely rapid development occurred in the techniques of genomics, and in the disciplines applying genomics methods. Researches in genomics focus on how the human genome interacts with the environmental factors for determining the gene expression. Nutrition as one of the most important environmental factors has an obvious impact on the health but we have not known yet exactly what this impact is and what its mechanism is. The so called nutrigenomics – that is a new discipline – aims to reveal the relationships that are not yet known. The personalized nutrition is a conception that adapts the diet, the foods, and the nutrients to the unique needs of the specific person.
The authors examined the relationships between the functional foods, consumer attitudes and personalized nutrition in the framework of a nation-wide representative consumer survey of 500 people. According to the results majority of the consumers (73.8%) believes that her/him nutrition (diet) follows a normal structure and all that she/he needs enters her/his body automatically. Knowing the critical health state of the population it can be stated that the high agreement portion is based on misbelieves. This is also indicated by the fact that 57.4% of consumers only eats foods that tastes good, even when it is supposedly less healthy. In the next half year almost 50% of the Hungarian population do not intend to switch to a nutrition considered healthier by themselves. Further 22% of the respondents already feel some urge to change their behavior, they compare the costs and the potential benefits of change. Only 5.0% of the interviewees switched to a nutrition considered healthier by themselves in the last six months, and the rate of those who maintain the positive change is 17.4%.
In the current situation there is no other option than raising awareness of the population for foods that provide excess nutrition benefits. These are the functional foods that hold important position in the education to healthy nutrition of the population. However, it is does matter in which strategy they are used by the enterprises. This applies for the development of both new technologies and new functional foods where involvement of consumers is inevitable today.
The so called perception screening theory answers the solution of the anomalies between the scientific objectivity and the consumer perception. We tried to apply the perception screening theory in a new discipline, entirely unknown to the consumers. The nutrition genomics and its major application area, the personalized nutrition are novel concepts to the population to such an extent that preferences and attitudes related to them have not occurred yet. This is why it could be interesting which most important psychological processes are the ones that can lead to the adoption of the new technology, and the development of the positive consumer attitudes. According to the results Hungarian consumers are mistrustful against the new technology and they are uncertain – despite its obvious advantages. The not so positive attitude is likely caused by more factors together. Traditional thinking, reluctance to the new play a role in it as well as the lack of information and misbelieves related to the genetic tests. The technology is novel to the consumers to such an extent that we found significant differences between the consumer segments only in some cases, i.e. consumer preferences cannot be classified, they are highly scattered. Finally, the authors developed an optimized practical model by which the successful launch of a new functional food and its hindering factors can be securely forecasted.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/1/1-2/1

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2014. 1 (1-2) 3-17.

01_Szakály Z. – Kiss M. – Jasák H._Funkcionális élelmiszerek, fogyasztói attitűdök és személyre szabott táplálkozás

2. The Megatrend Connections of Food Consumption

The interest which is shown about food and meals nowadays is high. More and more new magazines, blogs, restaurant reviews and ratings, TV channels, contests and festivals appear in connection with this topic. In this study the new phenomena of food topic is analysed through several megatrend buzzwords. The study tries to draw up a system for the connections of food and meal topic and also tries to present research results about it. Some research results are presented in the study in order to illustrate the behaviour of Hungarian consumer.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/1/1-2/2

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2014. 1 (1-2) 19-27.

02_Törőcsik M._Az ételfogyasztás megatrend kapcsolódásai

3. Analysis of the Food Consumer Behavior in the Online Environment: Does Digital Food Consumer Exist in Hungary?

In recent years one of the major players in the market have changed radically, the consumer. They have been titled as „digitally enlightened” citizens by various researches. The main characteristics of „traditional” consumer’s behavior have been discussed previously by numerous researchers. However research on digital consumers, especially in domestic circles, is still in initial stage.
The main objective of this article is to determine the online consumer behavior trends in our country, in relation to information and shopping in particular of food. At the end of this publication we intent to answer the question asked in the title, i.e. does digital food consumer exist in this country.
In our study we used the online consumer buying behavior process as base. Each step was mapped out by using relevant and current literature analysis. Using national representative survey (N=1000) we examined in detail the food-related online information searches and the shopping opportunities in online shops.
The convenience factor – similar to the description of the literature- is the most advantageous aspect of online shopping. At online shops the other factors examined convergence occurring in the median values show the uncertainty of customers’ purchasing behavior, which results in a lack of trust in food purchases.
Overall, we can conclude that the majority of literature and research on food consumption behavior doesn’t separate properly the online consumer’ roles and most of the emphasis is on the final purchase. Based on literature research, we have attempted to differentiate the digital food consumers based on online behavior in which the basis for the subsequent researches hypothetical fives categories were distinguished.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/1/1-2/3

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2014. 1 (1-2) 29-38.

03_Fehér A. – Soós M. – Szakály Z._Az élelmiszer-fogyasztói magatartás vizsgálata online környezetben_Létezik-e hazánkban digitális élelmiszerfogyasztó

4. Interpretation of Health-conscious Food Consumption Behavior on the Basis of LOHAS Concept

In our study, the information search behavior of sustainability committed consumer group is analyzed. Furthermore, consumer opinions about nutrition labels on food packaging are highlighted. According to the international literature, LOHAS (Lifestyle of Health and Sustainability) group is the most committed consumer segment to sustainability.
Exploration of Hungarian sustainability committed consumer groups’ opinion about food labels is supported by the closing part of a research chain which was started in 2010. This, last research was carried out in 2012, where, with the aid of quota sampling, Trend followers’ and Unconcerned’s judgment on food labels was investigated. The quota and the two mentioned groups were formed on the basis of a national representative research, which was performed in 2011. Information search behavior was evaluated according to the structure of Grunert-Wills’ information search model. In this study we focus on our research results, which connect to the last two steps (understanding, interferences and use) of the mentioned model.
Goal of this research is to investigate in a practical aspect of information search behavior of domestic sustainability committed consumer group (“Trend followers”) in connection with food labels proving health effects of foodstuffs. Four hypotheses were defined to reach our goal:
H1: Among health information on food packaging, labels stating energy value, are getting a higher influencing role in food purchasing process, where conscious consumer groups have a deeper knowledge about the objective meaning of food labels.
H2: Consumer knowledge about objective meaning of food labels is getting a highlighted role in formation of brand loyalty.
H3: Trust has an essential role in consumer acceptation of food labels, where common qualifier activity of different organizations (state, profit and nonprofit area) come into the front.
H4: Correct understanding of food labels has a positive influencing effect on acceptation of higher prices and on real use of food labels during food purchasing.
One- and multivariate analysis and cross table analysis were calculated to investigate our assumptions. In the closing part of our study, three practical recommendations are defined, which relate to follows: optimization of communication strategy of food industries, way of introduction of new food labels and need of objective guidance of consumers about food information.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/1/1-2/4

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2014. 1 (1-2) 39-46.

04_Lehota J. – Csíkné Mácsai É. – Rácz G._Az egészségtudatos élelmiszer-fogyasztói magatartás értelmezése a LOHAS koncepció alapján

9. Impact of Personal Values on the Change of Health Behaviour and the Conscious Food Purchase

Major aim of the examination is to reveal relationships between personal values, the switch to the health conscious nutrition method, and the food consumer behaviour based on the value list by Kahle (LOV). In order to attain this goal a nationwide representative survey was conducted in Hungary with the participation of 1000 persons. According to the results the most important value for the population is safety that is followed by the need for fun and enjoyment in life. During the analysis of the value list a factor structure – different from the standard – was revealed that formed the base of the segmentation. Four consumer segments were identified, the Value oriented, the Moderately value driven, the Safety seeker, and the Disappointed segments.
The Value oriented segment can be considered as the primary target group of health protecting foods as members of this group moved to the direction of more health conscious consumption and in parallel of more health conscious food purchase to the greatest extent (18.5%). The second group showing significant changes is the Safety seekers that suggests that the extent of the value orientation significantly affects the behavior, i.e. food purchase and food consumption independently of its content. The value content provides information to the development of the content elements of the marketing strategy and the marketing message for the producers of health protecting foods.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/1/1-2/9

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2014. 1 (1-2) 57-71.

09_Szakály Z. – Szabó S. – Jasák H. – Szente V. – Kiss M._A személyes értékek hatása az egészségmagatartás változására és a tudatos élelmiszervásárlásra

10. Forms of Conscious Consumption

Globalization and its effects can be found almost everywhere. Among the effects of globalization the improvement of international trade, the technological progress, the increasing influence of multinational companies, the strengthening power and influence of international institutions such as the WTO, IMF, and World Bank, greater mobility of human resources across countries, greater outsourcing of business processes to other countries have to be pointed out. As one of the results of globalisation we can buy even such products that have been produced somewhere on the other side of the world. It is not always clear for the consumers where, how and by whom the product has been produced. For conscious consumers the information provided on the packaging of the product, labels, trademarks can help a lot when making their purchasing decision. Of course there are several other ways to collect the necessary information. For these consumers the origin of the product, the producer, the production process, the ingredients, the environmental and social impacts of the production, as well as ethical concerns are really important questions.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/1/1-2/10

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2014. 1 (1-2) 73-80.

10_Csapóné Riskó T. – Péntek Á._A tudatos fogyasztás megjelenési formái