1. Adaptation Possibilities of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire in the Field of Marketing Research – Differences Based on Gender and Generation

Keller, Veronika – Dernóczy-Polyák, Adrienn – Ercsey, Ida

Overweight and obesity is an endemic that appears in the developed countries of the world. Overweight and obesity means a serious expenditure for the consumers, for the employers and for the national states both in the prevention and in the treatment phases. In the national and international literature more authors deal with the research of the dimensions of healthy lifestyle either in a complex way or focusing on a special area (e. g. smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity or eating behavior). There are more tests investigating food consumption, but the most widely used one is the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). The revised TFEQ (TFEQ 21 and TFEQ 18) scales were validated in Hungary on the population with normal weight and overweight obese individuals and three types of eating behavior were identified, namely (1) emotional eating (EE), (2) cognitive control eating (CR) and (3) uncontrolled eating (UE). The aim of this study is on the one hand to introduce the Hungarian adaptation possibilities of the revised scale (TFEQ 16) measuring eating habits and on the second hand to explore the connections with demographics. In an empirical research 919 adult people were interviewed: 45.2% males and 54.8% females. Based on age the authors defined three generations, the “Baby boomers”, the X and the Y generations. Their ratio in the sample is the following: 14.7, 42.5 and 42.8%. Relying on the results of the empirical research it can be said that the adaptation of TFEQ 16 is possible in Hungary. The former explored factor structure is valid among Hungarian population that is adults can be characterized by emotional, uncontrolled and cognitive control eating. The EE and CR are typical eating styles among women and CR is typical for people belonging to Y generation. In the future the authors plan to extend the research to segment the population based on their eating styles in order to develop an effective marketing program for them.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/3/1/1

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2016. 3 (1) 3-20.

Download:  01_Keller V. – Dernóczy-Polyák A. – Ercsey I._A háromfaktoros evési kérdőív alkalmazási lehetőségei a marketingkutatásban

2. Testing for Consumer Preferences of Smoked Asian Sea Bass (Barramundi) Filet Products in Hungary

Szűcs, István – Tikász, Ildikó Edit – Karnai, Laura – Stündl, László

The present paper discusses the findings of primary research studies related to the development of smoked fish fillet made of the barramundi fish species into a functional food, connected to product tasting. The study sought to provide information for the target audience, in our case, for consumers in hypermarkets on (1) their certain fish consumption habits, (2) their attitudes towards conscious fish consumption, (3) the reputation of the barramundi brought to the domestic market recently and the related considerations of consumers, and (4) consumers’ perceptions of the latest product development, smoked barramundi enriched with substances of positive nutritional effects (e.g. vitamin complex, pumpkin-seed oil, Gingko biloba extract, Sylibum marianum oil, etc.) Our findings suggest that consumers’ perceptions of the barramundi were positive as they positioned this fish species as an attractive, premium category product. The product development, i.e. the smoked barramundi fillet, as a functional food, was well received by consumers. The target audience had already tasted smoked fish earlier, and they were satisfied with the taste of the new premium product. It is important to stress that the respondents lacked a good understanding of the meaning of “functional foods”; however, they agreed with such kind of product developments. They mostly appreciated the components of functional foods with positive and preventive effects on heart and eye health. On the basis of the research it can be concluded that product development is on the right track, it fulfils all the habits, expectations and demands of the target audience related to fish consumption.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/3/1/2

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2016. 3 (1) 21-36.

Download:  02_Szűcs I. – Tikász I. E. – Karnai L. – Stündl L._ Füstölt barramundi filé termékek hazai fogyasztói megítélésének vizsgálata

3. Organic Production as a Key for Sustainable Development in Wine Industry in the Czech Republic

Formánková, Sylvie – Chládková, Helena – Beránková, Anita

The paper describes the environment sector of organic winery in the Czech Republic and finds opportunities for Czech winegrowers to sustain the industry and contribute to its future development. Organic viticulture has changed dramatically. Organically farmed vineyards formed 4.9% share of the total area of vineyards in the Czech Republic in 2011 and 6.1% in 2012. Czech organic wines have much to offer to consumers. They have received many prestigious awards at international competitions; however the foreknowledge of customers about such wines is very low as these are drunk mostly by regular consumers. That is why a change should be made. The popularity of organic wine is expected to grow mainly in the foreign markets. Although the Czech organic wines have already found their consumers, the need for additional marketing activities that will result in expansion of its portfolio of consumers, are required.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/3/1/3

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2016. 3 (1) 37-46.

Download:  03_Formánková, S. – Chládková, H. – Beránková, A._Organic Production as a Key for Sustainable Development in Wine Industry in the Czech Republic

4. Impact of the Financial and Economic Crisis of 2009 on the Hungarian Food Retail Sector in the Light of Consumer Confidence – Improving Trends, Increasing Consumer Confidence

Kristóf, Erzsébet – Harangi-Rákos, Mónika

As a result of the international financial and economic crisis of 2009, Hungarian customers started to make informed purchasing decisions. Merchants recognizing this phenomenon formed their strategies accordingly, while trying to meet the requirements of the constantly changing government regulations. This strategy ensured primarily that they could maintain their position in trading, new consumer expansion was, however, limited. Limited because consumers have realized the situation, i.e. traders have been competing for their income and complex shop visiting has become widely common, implying the weekly tour of different shops in retail chains with an eye on the current promotions. Based on the data of the last eight years, the year most affected by the economic crisis was 2009 – which proved to be the deepest point. It has to be highlighted however that though signs of recovery are clearly visible, the volume of food retail returned to its growth path only in 2014, while sale increase in value has been continuous since 2008. This suggests that the impulses of the crisis starting in the fourth quarter of 2008 formed the domestic food trade for full six years. Also, this period was required to regenerate consumer trust. The more favourable prospects of the finances of both individuals and the economy encourage an increase of willingness to buy. The six-year period impacted by the crisis intensified concentration among trade stakeholders. The forecasts proved realistic, supermarkets have become more popular sites for shopping, although hypermarkets as strong competitors have been able to keep pace due to tailored promotions in the 6 trading days permitted by law until April 2016. Due to the massive social and political pressure the Government repealed the Act prohibiting work on Sundays in most retail shops with effect from 16 April 2016.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/3/1/4

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2016. 3 (1) 47-59.

Download:  04_Kristóf E. – Harangi-Rákos M._A 2009. évi pénzügyi és gazdasági válság hatása az élelmiszer-kiskereskedelemre a fogyasztói bizalom tükrében

5. The Organic Label Effect in Marketing Literature: Image Transfer, Halo Effect and Signaling

Kiss, Marietta – Kontor, Enikő – Kun, András István

Our study reviews the rapidly growing marketing literature on the organic label effect, and classifies it based on the underlying explanatory principles (theoretical background). Two broad categories of these studies are identified. The first consists of papers based on the image transfer or on the halo effect, and the second is composed of examinations built on signaling models. After reviewing 60 papers we can conclude that although the presence of the organic label effect has already been proven by many examinations in different contexts, its theoretical foundation is predominantly ad hoc: the authors of the reviewed studies do not justify that the choice of the underlying theory is the most fitting to the situation; moreover we could not find any studies comparing the relevance of the alternative explanations.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/3/1/5

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2016. 3 (1) 61-71.

Download:  05_Kiss M. – Kontor E. – Kun A. I._Az organikuscímke-hatás a marketing irodalomban – Imázstranszfer, haló-hatás és jelzés

6. The Effect of Product Information on the Consumer Behaviour in the Course of Food Purchase

Soós, Gabriella

This study investigates the course of the consumer’s information progression in order to underlie further quantitative and qualitative researches. This survey reviews the whole process of the information progression through which the consumer can decide which product to choose. The optimal consumption structure is configured by different principles and effects, and on the other hand every consumer is influenced by a diversity of information during the decision making process and the usage as well. The process of how individuals elaborate this information depends on numerous factors. The demographic and personality factors, qualification and profession, extant knowledge, the motivation for looking for information are very important as well as the evaluation of data. The cognitive, conative and emotive attitudes play an important role in the different stages of the information processes. The diverse information sources have a different effect on the consumer, too. The effectiveness of the information transfer is influenced by the consciousness of the consumer and how voluntarily they want to optimize their decision. In this process the extent to which they are concerned (for example a disease or prevention) plays a remarkable role. An important function of the stakeholders is to support the consumer’s decision with incomplex, laconic and authentic information. Without this the intended communication may generate a contradictory effect, however too much information may lead to rejection.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/3/1/6

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2016. 3 (1) 73-83.

Download:  06_Soós G._A termékinformáció fogyasztói magatartást befolyásoló hatása az élelmiszervásárlás során