The contribution of the eating-out-of-home sector to the overall food spending of Hungarian households is very low, especially when compared to other, well developed countries. In order to increase this market – besides the improvement of the elements of macro- and micro-environment – a significant task is to strengthen and improve the consumer satisfaction and loyalty. Consumer satisfaction/dissatisfaction is a complex system whose key element is complaint handling. The research team conducted a questionnaire survey in the spring of 2014 in Hungary (Central Hungary and Northern Great Plain regions) with a sample of 1063 respondents of the age group 15+ years. In the survey, the research models and findings of former international research projects were taken into consideration. Our research results are in compliance with the international research results and trends, although differences may be found in the numbers and extent of the Hungarian results. In the Hungarian eating-out-of-home sector, the desired service quality of the consumers exceeds the detected quality of services particularly in the key areas. Despite the frequent consumer dissatisfaction, the documented forms of dissatisfaction, which could be recognized directly by the management (e.g. direct complaints towards the staff, registered opinion on the claims book), are very low. Guests prefer to use the indirect channels of complaint (for example choosing other restaurant, negative word of mouth, or reducing tips), which will result in that the specific reasons of complaints could not be recognized by management of the restaurant. The exploration and registration of the original problems are the main prerequisites of the successful improvement of consumer satisfaction, therefore establishing an active complaint management system should be a key task for the restaurants.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2016. 3 (2) 3-18.
01_Lehota et al._A vendégelégedettség-elégedetlenség és panaszkezelés a magyar házon kívüli étkezési szektorban
Based on the secondary data, it can be stated that more than half of the Hungarian population are obese, therefore, the actuality of this topic is approved. As a result of this research, the distribution of the examined sample has been executed by the phases of the Transtheoretical model. Thus, the situation in the precontemplation phase is better concerning the transfer to more regular physical activity (one-third of the sample) than the change for food consumption considered as healthier. Similar results were received in the phase of maintenance as well: one-fourth of the sample answered that they did more regular physical activity with the minimal risk of fallback, and one-fifth of them thought that their healthier food consumption could be maintained. The fewest people are in the preparation phase of the transfer to healthier food nutrition, while in the case of more regular physical activity the rate is also lower in the phase of preparation compared to the contemplation, action and maintenance stages. A reason for that can be that the questioned see the change within one month, or they do not have the necessary determination to execute the change within such a short deadline, or to prepare themselves to the change. Considering the gender, in the first and last phases (precontemplation and maintenance) men are in greater proportion on both examined fields. In our opinion, the reason for it is that men are more determined considering their values and attitudes of their own body mass management. We think that the low number of people in the precontemplation phase is quite promising, especially in the case of more regular physical activity, since the people on the higher levels have the potential to develop healthier nutrition and physical activity, to enhance the motivation of contemplators, preparators and doers, and the support of maintainers can be a realistic step to reach the health political aims.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2016. 3 (2) 19-28.
02_Soós – Kovács – Szakály_A viselkedésváltozás szintjei a testtömeg-menedzselés folyamatában – élelmiszerfogyasztás és fizikai aktivitás
Nowadays children face lots of slogans every single day. A good slogan generates feelings. Of course these feelings, brand names and slogans can be placed in mind of children by marketing experts. The remembering rate of slogans is shockingly high, higher than is the case of their parents. We can state that well-placed slogans play a very important role in influencing children. All of these contribute to the development of brand loyalty, which – if it develops during childhood – can last an entire lifetime. My primary research (sample size is 1 222 children and 610 youth and adult) justifies this statement. My research shows the remembering rate of slogans and brand names in case of different foods with high level of fat-, sugar- and/or salt content in the segment of children, youth and adults.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2016. 3 (2) 29-40.
03_Szűcs_A fogyasztók életútja a szlogenek világában
Health, together with the social- and natural environment has become the most important and core value recently. The current research would like to explore the presence of sustainable development related values and the elements of health consciousness among the consumption behaviour of secondary school students. The aim of the first part is to provide an overview of conscious consumption, sustainable development and the literal researches connected to this particular generation. In the second part of the work, we present the results of a research made between April 2015 and 2016 involving 1 002 students of 13 institutions. During the selection, we kept in mind to choose institutions of all different profiles (human, sport, art, general) and different types (grammar school, vocational high school, technical school). During creating the questionnaire, the basis of the questions and statements since was the consumption trends that can be found in the literature sources as well. We analysed the data with the help of frequency indicators together with factor- and cluster analyses. During the primary examinations, we identified five factors that were created along with the values of the following behaviours: trend-following individualistic, health- and environmental conscious, authentic patriot, altruistic-ethical and business ethical. With the help of them, we could name four well-divided groups after the cluster analysis, where the values of the created factors can be realised at different rates. The groups were the Trend-avoiding Conscious, the Responsibility-blamers, the Passive “freshmen” and the Conscious individualists. The first group can be related to the trends of voluntary simplicity, whereas the fourth segment shows a strong similarity to the values of the LOHAS consumer group. These groups – and their different socio-demographic features – raise the attention to the fact that knowledge, messages and examples-to-follow are worth conveying with a differentiated marketing communicational strategy. This secondary school generation undertakes their connection to the particular sustainable and health conscious values, and – at least in a theoretical field – the majority of the students admit their responsibility in shaping the environment and their own health. In the case of conscious consumption, the peculiarities of this generation (digital, “Always on” generation) demand a quite new communicational approach in transporting messages and possibilities of act.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2016. 3 (2) 41-62.
04_Kiss – Kovács – Szakály_A fenntartható fejlődés értékei és az egészségtudatos életstílus elemzése középiskolás diákok körében
This topic will always be actual, since most of the companies crave to understand the
behaviour of their consumers in Hungary – what kind of patterns of behaviour they have, and how companies can influence consumer behaviour without high expenses, considering the most effective methods. As we know, consumer behaviour should be researched on the level of a specific product or service in the short term, or as a brand versus personal preference. Nowadays, the role of health-awareness and cost-consciousness is getting misrated, alongside with environmental protection and the awareness of hazardous substances. Based on our idea, the background of our research assumes awareness of the contents of food, and the investigation of labels or titles. The organic labels on food have a high priority role in Hungary. In our opinion, the trust contains the following factors: (1) There are control authorities who are reliable, and guarantee the high quality of products for the consumers (for example: Hungarian Authority for Consumer Protection, or other food and chemical industrial laboratories). (2) Food processing facilities are accredited, recorded, and given a certificate (for example: certificate of organic production, etc.) (3) Purchasing is straight from the source. (4) Purchase is on the basis of information technology. These factors are the underlying cause of the change in behaviour resulting from risk reduction awareness. The article focuses on the food consumption behaviour analysis of Hungary’s population. The analyzed database was queried from IPSOS Ltd. (N=1 038 people) but we will select 883 people, based on inclusive criteria (aged between 18 and 70) and exclude people with extreme incomes (due to being outliers). In order to indroduce the topic, we will start our research with a short literary introspection. Before the analysis of the database, we presume consumers have a kind of set awareness that is shaped by buying their daily food and products. In this research, we will prove this assumption.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2016. 3 (2) 63-77.
05_Tari – Lehota – Komáromi_Élelmiszerekkel kapcsolatos kockázatok csökkentésére irányuló magatartásformák vizsgálata
Examining the pork consumption, the differences in the cultural and religious habits should be mentioned, because pork meat is the most affected in religious restrictions regulations. In this article we present the cultural and religious impact on pork consumption. The religious affiliation/identity is basically determined by the food and consumer habits, too. Due to the differences in dietary habits and religious culture, we think that the consumption of pork can be highly varied from country to country as well. Therefore, examining the data of global pork consumption the conclusion is justified that the pork consumption per capita/year in the world does not give a full and true picture. We try to calculate the corrected pork consumption per capita/year data in the world considering the religious regulations and cultural habits. This corrected data shows a more complete picture about pork consumption in the world.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2016. 3 (2) 79-89.
06_Vida – Szűcs_Társadalmi-kulturális kérdések és a tradíciók szerepe a sertéshúsfogyasztásban
Successful small companies concentrate their marketing strategy on satisfying the specific requirements of market niches which are unprofitable for big concerns. It is a complicated task on the market of common consumer goods – like the food market – because it is difficult to find the right buyer segment among the large number of costumers. It is more difficult to choose the adequate distribution and communication channels. The Darnó-Hús (Darnó Meat) – situated in the north-west of Hungary near the Austrian and the Slovakian borders – also faces this problem. Firstly, they do not choose between traditional local food and functional foods, so they obviously aim at two niches. Secondly, small well-branded bakery shops and big supermarkets can be found among the company’s sales points. Furthermore, these sales points are geographically not concentrated. This small company cannot afford to spend much on widespread media communication, so its brand name is not well-known enough to get good product placement locations in the stores. As the SWOT-analysis, which was carried out with the collaboration of the management, points out, there is no unity in the choice between the offensive and defensive strategies. The internal factors of the company, such as high-quality products and excellent professional team, which is flexible enough to fulfil the specific requirements, would assign the company a stronger market position, however, the company’s management does not have adequate marketing tools to achieve a higher penetration into the consumer market. After twenty years in operation, they have to make a decision about the next stage of development. Actually before they start to improve their production capacity, the management has to define their market more precisely. To reach the targeted market niche effectively, more effective branding, clear – emotional and rational – positioning in communication, and adequate selling placement are needed.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2016. 3 (2) 91-104.
07_Kandikó_Sikeres kisvállalkozás – eredményes marketing – Kisvállalati esélyek az élelmiszerpiacon