1. The Investigation of Sustainable Values among the Students of the University of Debrecen

Balsa-Budai, Nikolett - Szakály, Zoltán

The aim of the research was to define sustainable values among the students of the University of Debrecen. We analysed the lifestyle of two sustainable consumption groups, the LOHAS (Lifestyle of Health and Sustainability) and the LOVOS (Lifestyle of Voluntary Simplifiers). As a first step, connection points were being looked for between the LOHAS and the LOVOS segments with the assistance of the literature review. Secondly, a questionnaire-based survey was carried out involving 298 students of the University of Debrecen. In this step appearance of sustainable values was analysed using factor analysis both for LOHAS and LOVOS segments separately. Next, we made a value-based lifestyle segmentation of the students with the assistance of hierarchical analysis in the case of the LOHAS segment and k-means analysis in the case of the LOVOS segment. According to the results, four value-based segments could be distinguished in both the LOHAS and the LOVOS groups. In the case of the LOHAS consumer group, the ambitious trend followers (the cluster size was 25.1% of the asked students) reflect the characteristics of the LOHAS consumers’ lifestyle to the greatest extent. In the case of the LOVOS consumer group, the most dedicated cluster was the conscious simplifiers (the cluster size was 34.55% of the asked students). However, this segment does not entirely reflect all the values of the LOVOS consumers’ lifestyle, so further research is necessary in the future.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/5/1/1

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2018. 5 (1) 3-20.

 01_Balsa-Budai – Szakály_A fenntartható értékrend vizsgálata a debreceni egyetemisták körében

2. Examinations of Attitudes towards Functional Foods – Literature Review

Kiss, Marietta - Kontor, Enikő - Véha, Miklós - Szakály, Zoltán

The current study of our two-part paper series dealing with psychological influences on functional food consumer behaviour focuses on attitudes towards functional foods, while the subsequent study will discuss other psychological influential factors. Several research studies have already examined attitudes towards functional foods but the wide range of available products, the significant international heterogeneity of attitudes and the diversity of the applied research methods make their comparison and generalization remarkably hard. This paper aims to organize these research studies according to specific standpoints, and based on this, to draw generalizable conclusions. Based on the literature review, we can state that attitudes towards functional foods are positive worldwide, and those attitudes have a positive effect on the purchase and consumption of functional foods. There are, of course, international differences in attitude factors that play a significant role in this positive effect, and also in the composition of those factors. These differences can be attributed primarily to the different development stages of markets. However, we can state that the most important attitude factor everywhere is the reward from using functional foods (health protection and promotion, well-being, good performance and mood) that has to be forwarded stated simply and obviously towards the consumers in marketing communication messages. Besides this, social necessity (including medicine-like effects) of and confidence in functional foods also influence the intention for consumption, thus, the healing effect can also be a useful buzzword in messages. In the less developed markets – such as Hungary – confidence includes the belief in the safety of the products indicating the fact that where consumers are not familiar with these products, perceived risks of functional foods can be a strong barrier to their consumption. Therefore, a key role of marketing communication messages in those markets is the reduction of perceived risks. It is worth noting, however, that functional foods cannot be seen as a homogeneous food category, thus the importance of different attitude factors may vary between the different types of food. Additionally, consumers cannot be seen as one, homogeneous group, either, therefore different marketing communication messages developed according to the attitude-based segments will be effective.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/5/1/2

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2018. 5 (1) 21-34.

  02_Kiss et al_A funkcionális élelmiszerekkel kapcsolatos attitűdvizsgálatok – szakirodalmi áttekintés

3. What sort of Carrier Food Should Be Enhanced by Functional Food Producers? – A Continuation of a Scientific Debate in Hungary

Vonyó, Viola - Temesi, Ágoston

The basis of our study was provided by the question previously discussed in literature: whether functional food producers should enrich unhealthy or healthy carriers. Most of the previous studies reached the conclusion that such foods can be the carriers of successful functional foods that are perceived as healthy by themselves, such as yoghurt, cereals, orange juice and whole grain products. According to some authors, however, carriers that are perceived as healthy are not worth improving functionally, because they are perceived as healthy by themselves, so consumers did not find artificial enrichment necessary. The main objective of the study was to find out that the enrichment of which foods would be the most justified for food companies in Hungary. In our online questionnaire reaching 2034 respondents we built on the methodology of previous studies. As part of the questionnaire, based on conjoint cards, we created different mini-concepts to study the respondents’ willingness to buy them. For Hungarian customers, based on the respondents’ answers, the enrichment of “healthy foods”– aligning with the findings of several other researchers – generally makes the judgment of the product even more favourable, however, we also agree with the findings of researchers arguing differently, namely that in the case of an unhealthy product enrichment can cause a bigger change in how healthy it is perceived. But in the case when a functional food developer wants to sell their product with its healthy image, it is a better choice to enrich a carrier that is perceived as healthy, because the purchase intention for the product created by enriching something “unhealthy” is not going to be as high as the purchase intention for the non-enriched product seen as healthy.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/5/1/3

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2018. 5 (1) 35-48.

 03_Vonyó – Temesi_Milyen Alapélelmiszert dúsítson a funkcionális élelmiszergyártó

4. Role and Importance of Healthy Eating

Pfau, Christa - Müller, Anetta - Bács, Zoltán - Bácsné Bába, Éva

Healthy nutrition and a regular exercise are two important pillars of healthy lifestyle. Several researches point out that significant part of the population has incomplete knowledge regarding these topics. The Hungarian population is characterized by unhealthy eating habits and low level of regular exercise, which together result in a high obesity rate and poor health status among the Hungarians. Besides these, another unfavourable fact is the sedentary lifestyle: adults spend more than 5 hours a day in sitting position on average. The Hungarians’ daily physical activity is only 70% of the recommendations, and we only spend 10 minutes a day doing sports. Vegetables and fruits are important ingredients of a healthy and balanced diet, the consumption rate of which is quite low in several European countries including Hungary. In our article we present the main characteristics and contexts of healthy nutrition and physical activity. In addition, we analyze a nutrition research activity which can be an important basis for integrative strategies. Based on secondary research, we present research results that demonstrate the protective effects of vegetable and fruit consumption connected to various diseases. Furthermore, we present the unfavorable tendencies of vegetable and fruit consumption of the European and Hungarian population, and we make suggestions in order to improve the unfavourable circumstances and indicators. We also focus on the socio-ecological model of the nutrition guideline, the levels of which significantly affect our habits related to nutrition and physical activity.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/5/1/4

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2018. 5 (1) 49-63.

 04_Pfau et al_Az egészséges táplálkozás szerepe és jelentősége

5. Opportunities and Obstacles in the Healthy Food Consumption Area

Mihály, Nikolett - Rónai, Ramóna - Komáromi, Nándor - Lehota, József

The issue of healthy food consumption is an extremely hot topic in today’s fast-paced world. One of today’s ruler trends are the health awareness and health market expansion. The role of the health of consumers is appreciated. People spend more and more to preserve their health. The consequence of conscious consumption is that individuals can keep their physical and mental activity for a longer time remaining their life and accordingly they can be involved in the economic growth. Our central hypotheses were that the financial situation, the level of consciousness and „identity” have a decisive influence on women who assume a healthy eating habit in Hungary. We also presumed a link between health consciousness and financial attitudes, as well as a positive relationship between health consciousness and behavioral intent and normative beliefs. Our results confirm: the income status and the degree of awareness mostly influence the existence of a healthy diet.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/5/1/5

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2018. 5 (1) 65-76.

 05_Mihály et al_Lehetőségek és akadályok az egészséges élelmiszer-fogyasztás területén

6. Bread and Baked Goods Consumption Habits in the Gluten Free Diet

Csapóné Riskó, Tünde - Péntek, Ádám

Celiac disease is a genetic autoimmune disorder which is the result of an immune system response to the ingestion of gluten in susceptible persons. Gluten is a generalised term that describes the storage proteins found in the common cereal grains: wheat, rye, barley and their derivatives. This disease is permanent and damage to the small intestine always occurs when gluten is consumed, regardless of whether symptoms are present or not. Celiac disease affects about 1 in 100 individuals worldwide. In Hungary 1-2 percent of the population is affected. The only treatment for people with celiac disease is lifelong adherence to a gluten-free diet. On a gluten-free diet, wheat, rye, barley and any foods or ingredients derived from them must be removed from the diet. Bread is basic and frequently consumed food made from wheat. Bread and salty and sweet baked goods are an essential part of the Hungarian eating habits. The market of gluten-free foods is continuously increasing worldwide. Among the reasons behind this trend the increasing number of diagnosed persons, their family members (with whom they eat together), healthy lifestyle and fashion lifestyle have to be pointed out. Several gluten-free bread and baked goods brands are available on the Hungarian market. The ingredients, texture, colour, softness of the available breads and baked goods are rather different. There is a big choice of gluten-free flour mixtures on the Hungarian market, as well. The compositions of these mixtures are also rather different. The aim of our empirical research was to investigate the gluten free bread and baked goods consumption habits of people following gluten-free diet.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/5/1/6

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2018. 5 (1) 77-89.

 06_Csapóné Riskó – Péntek_Kenyér és péksütemény fogyasztási szokások a gluténmentes diétában