1. Attitudes of Alternative Diet Followers Towards Purchasing Local Products

Barna, Fédra – Bauerné Gáthy, Andrea – Kovács, Bence – Szakály, Zoltán

Earth’s population has been growing steadily over the last centuries, with increasing demand for food production. For this reason, despite the current technological progress, even more and more cultivated lands are needed. The purpose of our research is to examine the proportion of local products that are being used by those who follow different alternative diets, which can also be used to test the behaviour towards sustainability. In order to reach our goals, we have developed a national survey including 504 Hungarian consumers. The survey consists of several questions about alternative diets, food-oriented lifestyle, and local products. The answers were weighted in order to properly represent the gender distribution of the population and were analysed using descriptive statistics and factor analysis. According to the results, environmental conscious behaviour appears among the alternative diet followers, but for sustainability this is not a sufficient condition. Local products are bought by 82.9% of the respondents. The biggest incentives of buying local products are the origin, the support of local producers / merchants, the reduction of food kilometres, the healthy and natural characteristics of the products, and the positive experiences with local products. In contrast, the reasons why local products are mostly refused by consumers are the facts that they are time consuming and difficult to obtain.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/5/2/1

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2018. 5 (2) 3-15.

 01_Barna – Bauerné Gáthy – Kovács – Szakály_Az alternatív étrendet követők helyi termékek vásárlásához kapcsolódó attitűdjei

2. Health or Taste? Consumer Dilemmas with Functional Foods – Literature Review

Kontor, Enikő – Szakály, Zoltán – Véha, Miklós – Kiss, Marietta

The current study of our two-part paper series is dealing with one of the most important attitude influences on functional food consumer behaviour. Namely, it focuses on “health effects vs. taste” attitude factor of functional food products, which describes the possible conflict between a pleasant taste and the health benefit of the product. This factor is analysed on the basis of two aspects of factors influencing food choice: internal (food) effects (e.g. sensory aspects) and external (non-food) effects (e.g. psychological, social, cultural factors). The most important internal (or intrinsic) characteristic is the taste of the food product. A remarkable finding of this study is that good taste is a crucial, self-relevant characteristic of any food product and bad taste would not be accepted in functional food products either. Consumers are hardly willing to compromise on the taste of functional food products for potential health benefits. Another aspect in the case of functional food products is that intrinsic product characteristics are given by the combination of the health-enhancing ingredient with the type of carrier product used. Studies have shown that functional ingredients that weaken the taste of such food products reduce their acceptance. There is a consensus in the literature that a natural match between added ingredient and carrier product increases the overall acceptance of functional food products. External (or extrinsic) characteristics, e.g. psychological and lifestyle factors, and socio-cultural differences provide further aspects of the potential conflict of “health effects vs. taste”. From a psychological point of view, one may assume that an individual who chooses a functional food is committed to the products’ benefits and may be willing to accept some unpleasant taste in order to achieve the desired health benefit. It has to be noted, however, that although the importance of a given health benefit may lead to the acceptance of an unpleasant taste, this acceptance is not necessarily supported by each of the health benefits. Lifestyle variables also influence the acceptance of functional foods, e.g. wellness-oriented consumers appear to be more willing to trade the taste for health benefits. However, the segment of consumers who are ready to sacrifice the taste for potential health benefits cannot be identified by using classical demographic characteristics as segmentation variables. The “health effects vs. taste” conflict is influenced by cultural differences, too. E.g. the priority of taste can be observed in whole Europe; in contrast, the preference for nutritional benefits is rather typical in the Asian countries. The final conclusion of our study is similar to that of the literature. Good taste and healthiness are not necessarily to be traded-off against each other. Hoping for consumer willingness to compromise on the taste for health is highly speculative and risky, so the functional food industry must develop good taste solutions. In addition to sensory perception of the food, the expectations have also been found to have an impact on the acceptance of functional food products. Consumers’ expectations are highly influenced by marketing communications. In case of functional food products marketing communication is strongly based on health-related information and this information influences not only the perception of healthiness but the liking of foods, too. Hence, additional values of functional food products (health+convenience+pleasure) have to be communicated as hedonic values, emphasizing especially the role of pleasure.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/5/2/2

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2018. 5 (2) 17-29.

 02_Kontor – Szakály – Véha – Kiss_Egészség vagy íz – Fogyasztói dilemmák a funkcionális élelmiszerekkel kapcsolatban – Szakirodalmi áttekintés

3. Investigation into Online Customer Behaviour and Opportunities of the Food Shopping among Hungarian and American Online Consumers

Tari, Katalin

Nowadays, it is so much easier to interact with each other (two-way communication) from all over the world as never before. This possibility has only been available for a few people – for the military at first – but after some decades, it became accessible to everyone. Online customer demand increased a lot, for example by the big boom of Web 2.0. by Mark Zuckerberg’s Facebook and by the introduction of Steve Jobs’ iPad. This topic is of interest, because companies from all over the world would like to find the most effective and cheapest methods to reach and keep their online consumers (worldwide). Therefore, they need to discover more about their consumers’ behaviour without generating high expenditure. This article focuses on the behavioural analysis of the online consumer (non-representative) population between Hungary and the USA. The background for my research consists of the awareness of the contents of e-markets. The analysed questionnaire was given out online (N=932) and people with high incomes (outliers) were excluded. Before the analysis of the database, I presumed that the consumers have a focus on online selling products and/or services. In this research we will examine the differences and identities of the behaviour of Hungarian and American customers based on online purchases. I have used Factorial ANOVA to analyse my database and found answers to my research questions about the most popular online goods and/or services. Furthermore, the differences and similarities of the behaviour between American and Hungarian consumers have been examined.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/5/2/3

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2018. 5 (2) 31-43.

 03_Tari_Online élelmiszervásárlási szokások és lehetőségek vizsgálata magyar és amerikai online vásárlók körében

4. Characteristics of Eating Habits and Nutritional Status among the Hungarian Population – Literature Review

Müller, Anetta – Gabnai, Zoltán – Pfau, Christa Sára – Pető, Károly

Obesity is a growing public health problem worldwide: recent research activities have shown that the significance of obesity regarding public health is as much as smoking, which imposes a huge burden on the healthcare system. WHO ranked obesity among the world’s ten most significant health problems. Obesity has an increasing prevalence among both adults and children in our country, which is accompanied by the unhealthy eating habits and low level of physical activity and sports of Hungarian people. In our research, we analyze the national literature which represents the nutritional characteristics and their changes of the Hungarian population, the main issues of healthy eating, the different recommendations as well as the status of the Hungarian population related to obesity and overweight. In our article we introduce the relevant research regarding eating habits in other countries based on the international literature. Besides these, we present best practices that could influence the health behaviour of the population by focusing on lifestyle factors, especially regular exercise and healthy diet.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/5/2/4

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2018. 5 (2) 45-55.

 04_Müller – Gabnai – Pfau – Pető_A magyarok táplálkozási szokásainak és tápláltsági állapotának jellemzői – Szakirodalmi áttekintés

5. Analysis of Poultry Consumption and Purcase Habits in Connection with Socio-demographic Factors

Huszka, Péter – Fehér, András – Keller, Veronika

The consumption of poultry is an important source of nutrition, so it is a basic need for everyday food conception. To supply the population is not only a sensitive social question, but also a question of national health. The aim of this study is to reveal the connection between the preference of poultry and the basic socio-demographic factors and highlight the circumstances of purchasing this type of meat. In order to understand the preference of poultry, a large sample quantitative (N=1 023 respondents) study was conducted. The preference of poultry depends on the age and residence of consumers. People over 50 and below 34 living in larger cities have the most favorable preference towards poultry. In order to understand the circumstances of purchasing poultry and other meat products, an observation (N=134) was conducted. Customers typically buy fresh meat in super- and hypermarkets or at butcher’s and they request the product from salespeople. Shoppers prefer to buy poultry than pork or beef. Considering poultry people usually buy pigeon-breast either filet or boned. People pay an average amount of 3 700 HUF for meat, however, the standard deviation is high. The mode are 2 000, 4 000 and 6 000 HUF. In general, the process of purchasing lasts for 10 minutes. Customers usually buy poultry because of hedonism and healthy eating style that is why companies have to sell the advantages and not only the product on the market.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/5/2/5

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2018. 5 (2) 57-69.

 05_Huszka – Fehér – Keller_Baromfihús fogyasztási és vásárlási szokások elemzése szocio-demográfiai tényezők függvényében