1. Analysis of University Students’ Behavior Towards Online Grocery Shopping Based on the TAM-Model

Piros, Edina – Fehér, András

These days new, alternative forms of sales such as parcel delivery, direct sales, telephone and the internet are playing an increasingly important role in commerce. Relevant literature and statistics prove the success of e-commerce at national and international levels. Our aim is to identify a segment of online sales where this performance is still modest. Online grocery shopping has not been integrated into consumer’s life so far compare to other market-leading product categories (clothing, footwear). During the secondary research, we conducted extensive literature analysis using national and international sources. In the course of primary research, a questionnaire survey was conducted as a quantitative procedure. 501 students were involved from the Faculty of Economics of the University of Debrecen in this non-representative survey, in which we sought to reach as many cultures and nations as possible. Our main goal was to answer the question of the factors behind the development of online consumer preferences in the fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) product category. For this the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was applied in the primary research. The Likert scale was applied to assess the students’ position on the topic. The 18 statements underlying the analysis were adapted from the researches of Radka and Martin (2018). After the reliability test, a factor analysis was made. The variables were compressed into three factors. Because of the better understanding, the exploratory factor analysis and the data reduction were separated. Principal component analysis was made on the statements belonging to each factor. Subsequently, a cluster analysis of four was conducted or four clusters for Hungarian and foreign students. The hypothesis about the attitude towards buying food online among the FMCG products is more reserved for Hungarian students than for foreign students has been proved.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/7/2/1

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (2) 3-19.

Download: 01_Piros – Fehér_Egyetemi hallgatók online élelmiszer-vásárlói magatartás vizsgálata a TAM-modell alapján

2. The Role of the Cognitive Component of Consumer Attitude in the Image of the Pálinka

Mucha, László – Oravecz, Titanilla – Totth, Gedeon

The research aim is to explore the potential role of consumer attitude components in image development related to a traditional Hungarian alcoholic beverage, the pálinka. This study focuses on the effect of the cognitive component of attitude on image of the pálinka. The relevance of this research is the expansion of the pálinka market in recent years and the changing of the regulatory environment about homemade spirits. Distillate made at home, which product improperly called homemade pálinka, is very popular in Hungary. Based on the qualitative studies, the most important characteristics in the consumer perception of alcoholic beverage are quality, price, prestige, fashion and origin. The importance of these attributes of the most popular alcoholic beverages in Hungary was assessed by the participants on Likert scales. Homemade spirit has the most favorable attitude and in-store pálinka has the most unfavorable attitude. To understand the effect of the cognitive component, we used two types of the multiattribute attitude model of Fishbein. By using a 7-point semantic differential scale, we could graphically illustrate the consumer belief about the homemade and in-store pálinka. Image profiles on the semantic differential scales show the differences in image of the analysed alcoholic beverages. The study confirmed the advantage of homemade spirit image over in-store pálinka, points out the importance of education and information in the case of the cognitive component of consumer attitude. The reconsidering of the marketing communication of the in-store pálinka producers is very important and urgent.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/7/2/2

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (2) 21-32.

Download: 02_Mucha et al._A fogyasztói attitűd kognitív komponensének a pálinka imázsában betöltött szerepe

3. International Market Segmentation of European Countries Based on Sports and Health Consumption

Kiss, Marietta – Farkas, Noémi Dóra

Differences in development of European countries can be seen in many areas. Differences in household expenditure, income inequality and life expectancy have already been revealed by a number of previous studies. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the international variations in household health, sports and recreation spending. In our research, therefore, European countries were segmented on the basis of, among other things, household health, sports and recreation expenditures, pointing out that the level of these expenditures is related to other dimensions of development. As a result of our research, the authors managed to separate four clusters of European countries in terms of sports consumption and three clusters in terms of health consumption, with useful lessons for economic and social policy or profit-oriented companies considering international expansion in the health, sports and recreation markets.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/7/2/3

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (2) 33-49.

Download: 03_Kiss – Farkas_Az európai országok nemzetközi piacszegmentációja sport- és egészségfogyasztás alapján

4. Qualitative Analysis of Consumers’ and Experts’ Perceptions of Energy Drinks

Berencsi, Alexa – Fehér, András

Energy drinks are very popular products, as evidenced by their high soaring market value. However, perceptions surrounding beverages often take extreme forms, both among consumers and experts. Our research aim is to get closer to expert and consumer insights using qualitative methods. The study consisted of three main parts: the first was a netnographic study, while the authors successfully separated 3 online consumer groups. This was followed by a closer examination of each group. We interviewed four prominent representatives from three disciplines, asking about the differences between coffee and energy drinks and their effects on the body. This was followed by an examination of the consumer side through two focus group discussions of 8-8 people. Participants in one group are supporters of consuming energy drinks and in the other group are opponents of consuming energy drinks. Both conversations took place under the same conditions, based on a similar scenario, which included several questions as well as tasks that shaped projective techniques. The results of the research can be attributed to the statement that the assessment of energy drinks contains many contradictory elements, yet those interviewed during the research and the known literature sources all emphasized the importance of moderation.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/7/2/4

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (2) 51-63.

Download: 04_Berencsi – Fehér_Az energiaitalok fogyasztói és szakértői megítélésének kvalitatív elemzése

5. Beliefs and Misbeliefs About Plant-Based Diet Relying on the Results of an Online Research

Keller, Veronika – Bocsková, Viktória

A main current trend is healthy lifestyle and the consumption of fruit and vegetables. The assessment of healthiness of plant-based diet is not so obvious either among the population or food experts. In an online survey the knowledge, beliefs and misbeliefs about plant-based diet were analysed among members and non-members of online social media lifestyles groups. All in all, it can be stated that there are no significant relationships and differences between knowledge, attitude and perception of members and non-members. Social media users are aware of the different types of plant-based diet (vegetarian, vegan) and the positive and negative psychological effects. The associations connected to plant-based diet are the following: healthy, environmentally friendly and expensive. Only a small segment of Hungarian people follow plant-based diet. At the same the diverse and everyday consumption of fruit and vegetables is essential because of health and sustainability issues. Due to conscious nutrition and more plant-based diet, people can contribute to the protection of their own health and the Earth.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/7/2/5

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (2) 65-77.

Download: 05_Keller – Bocsková_Hitek és tévhitek a növényi alapú étrendről egy online kutatás eredményei alapján

6. Examining of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Among the Hungarian Consumers

Szabó, Imola – Lehota, József

The importance of fruit and vegetable consumption is emphasized by promotions, recommendations, and domestic and foreign researches. According to the results of Hungarian research, consumers with high education and high income are the fastest to commit to a healthy lifestyle (of which regular consumption of fruit and vegetables is an integral part). The present study examines fruit and vegetable consumption through focus group interviews examining two distinct segments; full-time undergraduate students as well as full-time adults. The reason for choosing the two segments was based on the literature, according to which lifestyle research shows that the supportive family financial background of students helps to make this segment more health-conscious, while full-time adults with higher education and income are also more health-conscious consumers. Based on the results of interviews with six groups – three with students and three with full-time adults – it can be stated that among the participants the reasons for consuming fruit and vegetables are health awareness, and in many cases the family pattern is a determining, moreover important aspect that vegetables and fruits are very much loved. However, despite their commitment to a healthy lifestyle and fruit and vegetable, most of them have never heard of fruit and vegetable promotions. As a result of the focus group research, it can also be observed that income is a determining factor, especially in the face of rising prices. In addition to consumption patterns, the research also addressed the issue of branding, the results of which suggest that geographical indications are still more important than the creation of a stand-alone brand name.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/7/2/6

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2020. 7 (2) 79-89.

Download: 06_Szabó – Lehota_Zöldség-gyümölcs fogyasztás vizsgálata a magyar fogyasztók körében