4. Characteristics of Eating Habits and Nutritional Status among the Hungarian Population – Literature Review

Müller, Anetta – Gabnai, Zoltán – Pfau, Christa Sára – Pető, Károly

Obesity is a growing public health problem worldwide: recent research activities have shown that the significance of obesity regarding public health is as much as smoking, which imposes a huge burden on the healthcare system. WHO ranked obesity among the world’s ten most significant health problems. Obesity has an increasing prevalence among both adults and children in our country, which is accompanied by the unhealthy eating habits and low level of physical activity and sports of Hungarian people. In our research, we analyze the national literature which represents the nutritional characteristics and their changes of the Hungarian population, the main issues of healthy eating, the different recommendations as well as the status of the Hungarian population related to obesity and overweight. In our article we introduce the relevant research regarding eating habits in other countries based on the international literature. Besides these, we present best practices that could influence the health behaviour of the population by focusing on lifestyle factors, especially regular exercise and healthy diet.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/5/2/4

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2018. 5 (2) 45-55.

 04_Müller – Gabnai – Pfau – Pető_A magyarok táplálkozási szokásainak és tápláltsági állapotának jellemzői – Szakirodalmi áttekintés

4. Role and Importance of Healthy Eating

Pfau, Christa - Müller, Anetta - Bács, Zoltán - Bácsné Bába, Éva

Healthy nutrition and a regular exercise are two important pillars of healthy lifestyle. Several researches point out that significant part of the population has incomplete knowledge regarding these topics. The Hungarian population is characterized by unhealthy eating habits and low level of regular exercise, which together result in a high obesity rate and poor health status among the Hungarians. Besides these, another unfavourable fact is the sedentary lifestyle: adults spend more than 5 hours a day in sitting position on average. The Hungarians’ daily physical activity is only 70% of the recommendations, and we only spend 10 minutes a day doing sports. Vegetables and fruits are important ingredients of a healthy and balanced diet, the consumption rate of which is quite low in several European countries including Hungary. In our article we present the main characteristics and contexts of healthy nutrition and physical activity. In addition, we analyze a nutrition research activity which can be an important basis for integrative strategies. Based on secondary research, we present research results that demonstrate the protective effects of vegetable and fruit consumption connected to various diseases. Furthermore, we present the unfavorable tendencies of vegetable and fruit consumption of the European and Hungarian population, and we make suggestions in order to improve the unfavourable circumstances and indicators. We also focus on the socio-ecological model of the nutrition guideline, the levels of which significantly affect our habits related to nutrition and physical activity.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/5/1/4

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2018. 5 (1) 49-63.

 04_Pfau et al_Az egészséges táplálkozás szerepe és jelentősége

2. Levels of Behaviour Change in the Course of Body Mass Management – Food Consumption and Physical Activity

Soós, Mihály – Kovács, Bence – Szakály, Zoltán

Based on the secondary data, it can be stated that more than half of the Hungarian population are obese, therefore, the actuality of this topic is approved. As a result of this research, the distribution of the examined sample has been executed by the phases of the Transtheoretical model. Thus, the situation in the precontemplation phase is better concerning the transfer to more regular physical activity (one-third of the sample) than the change for food consumption considered as healthier. Similar results were received in the phase of maintenance as well: one-fourth of the sample answered that they did more regular physical activity with the minimal risk of fallback, and one-fifth of them thought that their healthier food consumption could be maintained. The fewest people are in the preparation phase of the transfer to healthier food nutrition, while in the case of more regular physical activity the rate is also lower in the phase of preparation compared to the contemplation, action and maintenance stages. A reason for that can be that the questioned see the change within one month, or they do not have the necessary determination to execute the change within such a short deadline, or to prepare themselves to the change. Considering the gender, in the first and last phases (precontemplation and maintenance) men are in greater proportion on both examined fields. In our opinion, the reason for it is that men are more determined considering their values and attitudes of their own body mass management. We think that the low number of people in the precontemplation phase is quite promising, especially in the case of more regular physical activity, since the people on the higher levels have the potential to develop healthier nutrition and physical activity, to enhance the motivation of contemplators, preparators and doers, and the support of maintainers can be a realistic step to reach the health political aims.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/3/2/2

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2016. 3 (2) 19-28.

 02_Soós – Kovács – Szakály_A viselkedésváltozás szintjei a testtömeg-menedzselés folyamatában – élelmiszerfogyasztás és fizikai aktivitás