The current study of our two-part paper series dealing with psychological influences on functional food consumer behaviour focuses on attitudes towards functional foods, while the subsequent study will discuss other psychological influential factors. Several research studies have already examined attitudes towards functional foods but the wide range of available products, the significant international heterogeneity of attitudes and the diversity of the applied research methods make their comparison and generalization remarkably hard. This paper aims to organize these research studies according to specific standpoints, and based on this, to draw generalizable conclusions. Based on the literature review, we can state that attitudes towards functional foods are positive worldwide, and those attitudes have a positive effect on the purchase and consumption of functional foods. There are, of course, international differences in attitude factors that play a significant role in this positive effect, and also in the composition of those factors. These differences can be attributed primarily to the different development stages of markets. However, we can state that the most important attitude factor everywhere is the reward from using functional foods (health protection and promotion, well-being, good performance and mood) that has to be forwarded stated simply and obviously towards the consumers in marketing communication messages. Besides this, social necessity (including medicine-like effects) of and confidence in functional foods also influence the intention for consumption, thus, the healing effect can also be a useful buzzword in messages. In the less developed markets – such as Hungary – confidence includes the belief in the safety of the products indicating the fact that where consumers are not familiar with these products, perceived risks of functional foods can be a strong barrier to their consumption. Therefore, a key role of marketing communication messages in those markets is the reduction of perceived risks. It is worth noting, however, that functional foods cannot be seen as a homogeneous food category, thus the importance of different attitude factors may vary between the different types of food. Additionally, consumers cannot be seen as one, homogeneous group, either, therefore different marketing communication messages developed according to the attitude-based segments will be effective.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2018. 5 (1) 21-34.
02_Kiss et al_A funkcionális élelmiszerekkel kapcsolatos attitűdvizsgálatok – szakirodalmi áttekintés
The traditional and regional foods represent distinctive and unique values for customers in the world food market by their inimitable tastes and appearances. In today’s fast-moving world in which globalization’s different – both positive and negative – effects determine the daily activities of consumers and influence their needs, their choices and their decisions during the regular food and raw material purchases; it is relevant to strive for the presence and regular consumption of traditional products also to become known to a wide circle of society. The key objectives of our research are the main effects of traditional and regional foods in the Northern Great Plain, particularly with regard to the marketing and economic aspects approach. Our study is an experimental study of a later larger number of elements and representative survey, and it is based primarily on online questionnaires. During the research we received 151 available questionnaires. The interviewed inhabitants of the region have declared a positive opinion in the context of traditional and regional foods, most of them purchased and consumed these products regurarly.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2017. 4 (1-2) 79-90.
07_Halasi – Nábrádi_Feltáró kutatás a hagyományos és tájjellegű élelmiszerek jelentőségének megállapítására az Észak-Alföldi Régióban
As a result of the international financial and economic crisis of 2009, Hungarian customers started to make informed purchasing decisions. Merchants recognizing this phenomenon formed their strategies accordingly, while trying to meet the requirements of the constantly changing government regulations. This strategy ensured primarily that they could maintain their position in trading, new consumer expansion was, however, limited. Limited because consumers have realized the situation, i.e. traders have been competing for their income and complex shop visiting has become widely common, implying the weekly tour of different shops in retail chains with an eye on the current promotions. Based on the data of the last eight years, the year most affected by the economic crisis was 2009 – which proved to be the deepest point. It has to be highlighted however that though signs of recovery are clearly visible, the volume of food retail returned to its growth path only in 2014, while sale increase in value has been continuous since 2008. This suggests that the impulses of the crisis starting in the fourth quarter of 2008 formed the domestic food trade for full six years. Also, this period was required to regenerate consumer trust. The more favourable prospects of the finances of both individuals and the economy encourage an increase of willingness to buy. The six-year period impacted by the crisis intensified concentration among trade stakeholders. The forecasts proved realistic, supermarkets have become more popular sites for shopping, although hypermarkets as strong competitors have been able to keep pace due to tailored promotions in the 6 trading days permitted by law until April 2016. Due to the massive social and political pressure the Government repealed the Act prohibiting work on Sundays in most retail shops with effect from 16 April 2016.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2016. 3 (1) 47-59.
04_Kristóf E. – Harangi-Rákos M._A 2009. évi pénzügyi és gazdasági válság hatása az élelmiszer-kiskereskedelemre a fogyasztói bizalom tükrében
This study investigates the course of the consumer’s information progression in order to underlie further quantitative and qualitative researches. This survey reviews the whole process of the information progression through which the consumer can decide which product to choose. The optimal consumption structure is configured by different principles and effects, and on the other hand every consumer is influenced by a diversity of information during the decision making process and the usage as well. The process of how individuals elaborate this information depends on numerous factors. The demographic and personality factors, qualification and profession, extant knowledge, the motivation for looking for information are very important as well as the evaluation of data. The cognitive, conative and emotive attitudes play an important role in the different stages of the information processes. The diverse information sources have a different effect on the consumer, too. The effectiveness of the information transfer is influenced by the consciousness of the consumer and how voluntarily they want to optimize their decision. In this process the extent to which they are concerned (for example a disease or prevention) plays a remarkable role. An important function of the stakeholders is to support the consumer’s decision with incomplex, laconic and authentic information. Without this the intended communication may generate a contradictory effect, however too much information may lead to rejection.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2016. 3 (1) 73-83.
06_Soós G._A termékinformáció fogyasztói magatartást befolyásoló hatása az élelmiszervásárlás során
Several studies have drawn attention to the importance of and the impact on consumer behavior of the corporate efforts in order to promote sustainable consumption in the last decades. The concept and framework of sustainable consumption appear at global, European and national levels. Several studies have examined the possible design and modeling opportunities for sustainable societies. The socially responsible operation of companies and their efforts for sustainable consumption can be the driving force behind social changes. In our study, we examined the consumer’s perception of social responsibility of companies on based on a national representative sample of 1,038 respondents over 15 years of age. In our analysis, opinions and attitudes related to sustainable development are presented, followed by the characterization of the groups that can be separated on the basis of the monitoring of sustainable corporate activities. The research shows that only a minority the consumers do not believe that consumers could make to sustainable development through their decisions. In contrast, nearly a third of domestic consumers is neutral or attaches importance to the efforts of companies for sustainable development, which is average by European standards. The company moves which lead to better opinions of domestic consumers, or which may lead to the rejection of shopping are introduced. Four groups of consumers are separated according to the monitoring of sustainable business activities.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2015. 2 (2) 3-14.
01_Kovács et al._A vállalatok társadalmi felelősségvállalásának fogyasztói megítélése
The causes of the loss of market results go beyond the realities of intense and noisy competition. The rejecting attitude and resistant behaviour of consumers can exert pressure on the companies’ business processes – several market examples draw attention to the weight of those consequences. To find out the appropriate way to handle this phenomenon became inevitable. The resistant behaviour of consumers exists in numerous markets and industries, among these foods are particularly concerned. There are examples for short and long term, but intense consumer indignation. Although consumer resistance is not a product- or market-specific phenomenon, it’s worth considering the issue of food, because of its embeddedness in everyday life, so market players may face easily criticism and conflict of interest. The study provides an overview of markets facing consumer resistance. The aim of the quantitative research is to find out the affinity of Hungarian consumers for consumer resistance and its various forms.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2015. 2 (2) 29-45.
03_Jakopánecz_Fogyasztói ellenállásra való affinitás a magyar fogyasztók körében
Nowadays consumer trends in chocolate consumption are changing continuously. There is an increasing role of handmade ingredients, higher cocoa content, as well as chocolate is free from preservatives, additives and plant based oils. Therefore, chocolate products are healthier. The present study focuses on the consumption of craftsman chocolate in Hajdú-Bihar county. During our studies we have done primary and secondary research data and information collection. Our research is based primarily on online questionnaires and personal interviews. During the interviews we recieved 348 evaluating questionnaires. The research results show that 58.4% of the people who live in Hajdú Bihar county consume craftsman chocolate regularly. These consumers are mainly influenced by the taste and quality in their purchase. The county’s population is receptive to new ideas and is willing to spend more money on high quality products. The respondents regularly purchase and consume craftsman chocolate.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2015. 2 (2) 59-66.
05_Karnai – Szűcs_Kézműves csokoládéfogyasztás legfőbb jellemzői Hajdú-Bihar megyében
The interest which is shown about food and meals nowadays is high. More and more new magazines, blogs, restaurant reviews and ratings, TV channels, contests and festivals appear in connection with this topic. In this study the new phenomena of food topic is analysed through several megatrend buzzwords. The study tries to draw up a system for the connections of food and meal topic and also tries to present research results about it. Some research results are presented in the study in order to illustrate the behaviour of Hungarian consumer.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2014. 1 (1-2) 19-27.
02_Törőcsik M._Az ételfogyasztás megatrend kapcsolódásai
The purpose of our research is to understand the wild game meat, and more specifically, venison consumption behavior of the Hungarian population. In order to examine the issue, we have conducted questionnaire surveys as well as focus group interviews. Only 36.6% of the respondents reported that they consume game-based foods with some frequency. The main reason for the low consumption rate is related to the price of wild game meat which consumers consider too high. Based on focus group interviews, we concluded that the main problem is that most people do not even consider trying game-meat as they do not know about possible preparation methods. The results of our questionnaire survey reveal that 22.4% of the population has consumed red deer, while fallow deer has only been consumed by 7.7%. The respondents primarily associate deer meat with men, as they consider hunting and the preparation of wild-game foods a masculine activity. In Hungary, deer meat is a lesser known product considered to be a luxury good, for which a new marketing communication and sales strategy is needed. Limiting factors include unfamiliarity, high price and that respondents consider wild-game a seasonal product.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2014. 1 (1-2) 141-147.
21_Torma D. – Böröndi-Fülöp N. – Szente V._Vadhúsfogyasztói magatartás a minőségi szarvashús imázsa és pozícionálása