2. Health or Taste? Consumer Dilemmas with Functional Foods – Literature Review

Kontor, Enikő – Szakály, Zoltán – Véha, Miklós – Kiss, Marietta

The current study of our two-part paper series is dealing with one of the most important attitude influences on functional food consumer behaviour. Namely, it focuses on “health effects vs. taste” attitude factor of functional food products, which describes the possible conflict between a pleasant taste and the health benefit of the product. This factor is analysed on the basis of two aspects of factors influencing food choice: internal (food) effects (e.g. sensory aspects) and external (non-food) effects (e.g. psychological, social, cultural factors). The most important internal (or intrinsic) characteristic is the taste of the food product. A remarkable finding of this study is that good taste is a crucial, self-relevant characteristic of any food product and bad taste would not be accepted in functional food products either. Consumers are hardly willing to compromise on the taste of functional food products for potential health benefits. Another aspect in the case of functional food products is that intrinsic product characteristics are given by the combination of the health-enhancing ingredient with the type of carrier product used. Studies have shown that functional ingredients that weaken the taste of such food products reduce their acceptance. There is a consensus in the literature that a natural match between added ingredient and carrier product increases the overall acceptance of functional food products. External (or extrinsic) characteristics, e.g. psychological and lifestyle factors, and socio-cultural differences provide further aspects of the potential conflict of “health effects vs. taste”. From a psychological point of view, one may assume that an individual who chooses a functional food is committed to the products’ benefits and may be willing to accept some unpleasant taste in order to achieve the desired health benefit. It has to be noted, however, that although the importance of a given health benefit may lead to the acceptance of an unpleasant taste, this acceptance is not necessarily supported by each of the health benefits. Lifestyle variables also influence the acceptance of functional foods, e.g. wellness-oriented consumers appear to be more willing to trade the taste for health benefits. However, the segment of consumers who are ready to sacrifice the taste for potential health benefits cannot be identified by using classical demographic characteristics as segmentation variables. The “health effects vs. taste” conflict is influenced by cultural differences, too. E.g. the priority of taste can be observed in whole Europe; in contrast, the preference for nutritional benefits is rather typical in the Asian countries. The final conclusion of our study is similar to that of the literature. Good taste and healthiness are not necessarily to be traded-off against each other. Hoping for consumer willingness to compromise on the taste for health is highly speculative and risky, so the functional food industry must develop good taste solutions. In addition to sensory perception of the food, the expectations have also been found to have an impact on the acceptance of functional food products. Consumers’ expectations are highly influenced by marketing communications. In case of functional food products marketing communication is strongly based on health-related information and this information influences not only the perception of healthiness but the liking of foods, too. Hence, additional values of functional food products (health+convenience+pleasure) have to be communicated as hedonic values, emphasizing especially the role of pleasure.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/5/2/2

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2018. 5 (2) 17-29.

 02_Kontor – Szakály – Véha – Kiss_Egészség vagy íz – Fogyasztói dilemmák a funkcionális élelmiszerekkel kapcsolatban – Szakirodalmi áttekintés

3. Investigation into Online Customer Behaviour and Opportunities of the Food Shopping among Hungarian and American Online Consumers

Tari, Katalin

Nowadays, it is so much easier to interact with each other (two-way communication) from all over the world as never before. This possibility has only been available for a few people – for the military at first – but after some decades, it became accessible to everyone. Online customer demand increased a lot, for example by the big boom of Web 2.0. by Mark Zuckerberg’s Facebook and by the introduction of Steve Jobs’ iPad. This topic is of interest, because companies from all over the world would like to find the most effective and cheapest methods to reach and keep their online consumers (worldwide). Therefore, they need to discover more about their consumers’ behaviour without generating high expenditure. This article focuses on the behavioural analysis of the online consumer (non-representative) population between Hungary and the USA. The background for my research consists of the awareness of the contents of e-markets. The analysed questionnaire was given out online (N=932) and people with high incomes (outliers) were excluded. Before the analysis of the database, I presumed that the consumers have a focus on online selling products and/or services. In this research we will examine the differences and identities of the behaviour of Hungarian and American customers based on online purchases. I have used Factorial ANOVA to analyse my database and found answers to my research questions about the most popular online goods and/or services. Furthermore, the differences and similarities of the behaviour between American and Hungarian consumers have been examined.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/5/2/3

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2018. 5 (2) 31-43.

 03_Tari_Online élelmiszervásárlási szokások és lehetőségek vizsgálata magyar és amerikai online vásárlók körében

2. Examinations of Attitudes towards Functional Foods – Literature Review

Kiss, Marietta - Kontor, Enikő - Véha, Miklós - Szakály, Zoltán

The current study of our two-part paper series dealing with psychological influences on functional food consumer behaviour focuses on attitudes towards functional foods, while the subsequent study will discuss other psychological influential factors. Several research studies have already examined attitudes towards functional foods but the wide range of available products, the significant international heterogeneity of attitudes and the diversity of the applied research methods make their comparison and generalization remarkably hard. This paper aims to organize these research studies according to specific standpoints, and based on this, to draw generalizable conclusions. Based on the literature review, we can state that attitudes towards functional foods are positive worldwide, and those attitudes have a positive effect on the purchase and consumption of functional foods. There are, of course, international differences in attitude factors that play a significant role in this positive effect, and also in the composition of those factors. These differences can be attributed primarily to the different development stages of markets. However, we can state that the most important attitude factor everywhere is the reward from using functional foods (health protection and promotion, well-being, good performance and mood) that has to be forwarded stated simply and obviously towards the consumers in marketing communication messages. Besides this, social necessity (including medicine-like effects) of and confidence in functional foods also influence the intention for consumption, thus, the healing effect can also be a useful buzzword in messages. In the less developed markets – such as Hungary – confidence includes the belief in the safety of the products indicating the fact that where consumers are not familiar with these products, perceived risks of functional foods can be a strong barrier to their consumption. Therefore, a key role of marketing communication messages in those markets is the reduction of perceived risks. It is worth noting, however, that functional foods cannot be seen as a homogeneous food category, thus the importance of different attitude factors may vary between the different types of food. Additionally, consumers cannot be seen as one, homogeneous group, either, therefore different marketing communication messages developed according to the attitude-based segments will be effective.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/5/1/2

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2018. 5 (1) 21-34.

  02_Kiss et al_A funkcionális élelmiszerekkel kapcsolatos attitűdvizsgálatok – szakirodalmi áttekintés

7. Preliminary Research in Connection with the Significance of the Traditional and Regional Foods in the North Great Plain Region

Halasi, Nóra - Nábrádi, András

The traditional and regional foods represent distinctive and unique values for customers in the world food market by their inimitable tastes and appearances. In today’s fast-moving world in which globalization’s different – both positive and negative – effects determine the daily activities of consumers and influence their needs, their choices and their decisions during the regular food and raw material purchases; it is relevant to strive for the presence and regular consumption of traditional products also to become known to a wide circle of society. The key objectives of our research are the main effects of traditional and regional foods in the Northern Great Plain, particularly with regard to the marketing and economic aspects approach. Our study is an experimental study of a later larger number of elements and representative survey, and it is based primarily on online questionnaires. During the research we received 151 available questionnaires. The interviewed inhabitants of the region have declared a positive opinion in the context of traditional and regional foods, most of them purchased and consumed these products regurarly.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/4/1-2/7

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2017. 4 (1-2) 79-90.

07_Halasi – Nábrádi_Feltáró kutatás a hagyományos és tájjellegű élelmiszerek jelentőségének megállapítására az Észak-Alföldi Régióban

4. Impact of the Financial and Economic Crisis of 2009 on the Hungarian Food Retail Sector in the Light of Consumer Confidence – Improving Trends, Increasing Consumer Confidence

Kristóf, Erzsébet – Harangi-Rákos, Mónika

As a result of the international financial and economic crisis of 2009, Hungarian customers started to make informed purchasing decisions. Merchants recognizing this phenomenon formed their strategies accordingly, while trying to meet the requirements of the constantly changing government regulations. This strategy ensured primarily that they could maintain their position in trading, new consumer expansion was, however, limited. Limited because consumers have realized the situation, i.e. traders have been competing for their income and complex shop visiting has become widely common, implying the weekly tour of different shops in retail chains with an eye on the current promotions. Based on the data of the last eight years, the year most affected by the economic crisis was 2009 – which proved to be the deepest point. It has to be highlighted however that though signs of recovery are clearly visible, the volume of food retail returned to its growth path only in 2014, while sale increase in value has been continuous since 2008. This suggests that the impulses of the crisis starting in the fourth quarter of 2008 formed the domestic food trade for full six years. Also, this period was required to regenerate consumer trust. The more favourable prospects of the finances of both individuals and the economy encourage an increase of willingness to buy. The six-year period impacted by the crisis intensified concentration among trade stakeholders. The forecasts proved realistic, supermarkets have become more popular sites for shopping, although hypermarkets as strong competitors have been able to keep pace due to tailored promotions in the 6 trading days permitted by law until April 2016. Due to the massive social and political pressure the Government repealed the Act prohibiting work on Sundays in most retail shops with effect from 16 April 2016.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/3/1/4

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2016. 3 (1) 47-59.

 04_Kristóf E. – Harangi-Rákos M._A 2009. évi pénzügyi és gazdasági válság hatása az élelmiszer-kiskereskedelemre a fogyasztói bizalom tükrében

6. The Effect of Product Information on the Consumer Behaviour in the Course of Food Purchase

Soós, Gabriella

This study investigates the course of the consumer’s information progression in order to underlie further quantitative and qualitative researches. This survey reviews the whole process of the information progression through which the consumer can decide which product to choose. The optimal consumption structure is configured by different principles and effects, and on the other hand every consumer is influenced by a diversity of information during the decision making process and the usage as well. The process of how individuals elaborate this information depends on numerous factors. The demographic and personality factors, qualification and profession, extant knowledge, the motivation for looking for information are very important as well as the evaluation of data. The cognitive, conative and emotive attitudes play an important role in the different stages of the information processes. The diverse information sources have a different effect on the consumer, too. The effectiveness of the information transfer is influenced by the consciousness of the consumer and how voluntarily they want to optimize their decision. In this process the extent to which they are concerned (for example a disease or prevention) plays a remarkable role. An important function of the stakeholders is to support the consumer’s decision with incomplex, laconic and authentic information. Without this the intended communication may generate a contradictory effect, however too much information may lead to rejection.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/3/1/6

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2016. 3 (1) 73-83.

 06_Soós G._A termékinformáció fogyasztói magatartást befolyásoló hatása az élelmiszervásárlás során

1. Consumer Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility

Kovács, Ildikó – Lehota, József – Komáromi, Nándor

Several studies have drawn attention to the importance of and the impact on consumer behavior of the corporate efforts in order to promote sustainable consumption in the last decades. The concept and framework of sustainable consumption appear at global, European and national levels. Several studies have examined the possible design and modeling opportunities for sustainable societies. The socially responsible operation of companies and their efforts for sustainable consumption can be the driving force behind social changes. In our study, we examined the consumer’s perception of social responsibility of companies on based on a national representative sample of 1,038 respondents over 15 years of age. In our analysis, opinions and attitudes related to sustainable development are presented, followed by the characterization of the groups that can be separated on the basis of the monitoring of sustainable corporate activities. The research shows that only a minority the consumers do not believe that consumers could make to sustainable development through their decisions. In contrast, nearly a third of domestic consumers is neutral or attaches importance to the efforts of companies for sustainable development, which is average by European standards. The company moves which lead to better opinions of domestic consumers, or which may lead to the rejection of shopping are introduced. Four groups of consumers are separated according to the monitoring of sustainable business activities.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/2/2/1

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2015. 2 (2) 3-14.

 01_Kovács et al._A vállalatok társadalmi felelősségvállalásának fogyasztói megítélése

3. Affinity for Consumer Resistance Among Hungarian Consumers

Jakopánecz, Eszter

The causes of the loss of market results go beyond the realities of intense and noisy competition. The rejecting attitude and resistant behaviour of consumers can exert pressure on the companies’ business processes – several market examples draw attention to the weight of those consequences. To find out the appropriate way to handle this phenomenon became inevitable. The resistant behaviour of consumers exists in numerous markets and industries, among these foods are particularly concerned. There are examples for short and long term, but intense consumer indignation. Although consumer resistance is not a product- or market-specific phenomenon, it’s worth considering the issue of food, because of its embeddedness in everyday life, so market players may face easily criticism and conflict of interest. The study provides an overview of markets facing consumer resistance. The aim of the quantitative research is to find out the affinity of Hungarian consumers for consumer resistance and its various forms.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/2/2/3

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2015. 2 (2) 29-45.

 03_Jakopánecz_Fogyasztói ellenállásra való affinitás a magyar fogyasztók körében

5. Main Characteristics of Craftsman Sweets Consumption in Hajdú-Bihar Country

Karnai, Laura – Szűcs, István

Nowadays consumer trends in chocolate consumption are changing continuously. There is an increasing role of handmade ingredients, higher cocoa content, as well as chocolate is free from preservatives, additives and plant based oils. Therefore, chocolate products are healthier. The present study focuses on the consumption of craftsman chocolate in Hajdú-Bihar county. During our studies we have done primary and secondary research data and information collection. Our research is based primarily on online questionnaires and personal interviews. During the interviews we recieved 348 evaluating questionnaires. The research results show that 58.4% of the people who live in Hajdú Bihar county consume craftsman chocolate regularly. These consumers are mainly influenced by the taste and quality in their purchase. The county’s population is receptive to new ideas and is willing to spend more money on high quality products. The respondents regularly purchase and consume craftsman chocolate.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/2/2/5

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2015. 2 (2) 59-66.

 05_Karnai – Szűcs_Kézműves csokoládéfogyasztás legfőbb jellemzői Hajdú-Bihar megyében

2. The Megatrend Connections of Food Consumption

Törőcsik, Mária

The interest which is shown about food and meals nowadays is high. More and more new magazines, blogs, restaurant reviews and ratings, TV channels, contests and festivals appear in connection with this topic. In this study the new phenomena of food topic is analysed through several megatrend buzzwords. The study tries to draw up a system for the connections of food and meal topic and also tries to present research results about it. Some research results are presented in the study in order to illustrate the behaviour of Hungarian consumer.

DOI: 10.20494/TM/1/1-2/2

The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2014. 1 (1-2) 19-27.

02_Törőcsik M._Az ételfogyasztás megatrend kapcsolódásai