The aim of the research was to define sustainable values among the students of the University of Debrecen. We analysed the lifestyle of two sustainable consumption groups, the LOHAS (Lifestyle of Health and Sustainability) and the LOVOS (Lifestyle of Voluntary Simplifiers). As a first step, connection points were being looked for between the LOHAS and the LOVOS segments with the assistance of the literature review. Secondly, a questionnaire-based survey was carried out involving 298 students of the University of Debrecen. In this step appearance of sustainable values was analysed using factor analysis both for LOHAS and LOVOS segments separately. Next, we made a value-based lifestyle segmentation of the students with the assistance of hierarchical analysis in the case of the LOHAS segment and k-means analysis in the case of the LOVOS segment. According to the results, four value-based segments could be distinguished in both the LOHAS and the LOVOS groups. In the case of the LOHAS consumer group, the ambitious trend followers (the cluster size was 25.1% of the asked students) reflect the characteristics of the LOHAS consumers’ lifestyle to the greatest extent. In the case of the LOVOS consumer group, the most dedicated cluster was the conscious simplifiers (the cluster size was 34.55% of the asked students). However, this segment does not entirely reflect all the values of the LOVOS consumers’ lifestyle, so further research is necessary in the future.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2018. 5 (1) 3-20.
01_Balsa-Budai – Szakály_A fenntartható értékrend vizsgálata a debreceni egyetemisták körében
Health, together with the social- and natural environment has become the most important and core value recently. The current research would like to explore the presence of sustainable development related values and the elements of health consciousness among the consumption behaviour of secondary school students. The aim of the first part is to provide an overview of conscious consumption, sustainable development and the literal researches connected to this particular generation. In the second part of the work, we present the results of a research made between April 2015 and 2016 involving 1 002 students of 13 institutions. During the selection, we kept in mind to choose institutions of all different profiles (human, sport, art, general) and different types (grammar school, vocational high school, technical school). During creating the questionnaire, the basis of the questions and statements since was the consumption trends that can be found in the literature sources as well. We analysed the data with the help of frequency indicators together with factor- and cluster analyses. During the primary examinations, we identified five factors that were created along with the values of the following behaviours: trend-following individualistic, health- and environmental conscious, authentic patriot, altruistic-ethical and business ethical. With the help of them, we could name four well-divided groups after the cluster analysis, where the values of the created factors can be realised at different rates. The groups were the Trend-avoiding Conscious, the Responsibility-blamers, the Passive “freshmen” and the Conscious individualists. The first group can be related to the trends of voluntary simplicity, whereas the fourth segment shows a strong similarity to the values of the LOHAS consumer group. These groups – and their different socio-demographic features – raise the attention to the fact that knowledge, messages and examples-to-follow are worth conveying with a differentiated marketing communicational strategy. This secondary school generation undertakes their connection to the particular sustainable and health conscious values, and – at least in a theoretical field – the majority of the students admit their responsibility in shaping the environment and their own health. In the case of conscious consumption, the peculiarities of this generation (digital, “Always on” generation) demand a quite new communicational approach in transporting messages and possibilities of act.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2016. 3 (2) 41-62.
04_Kiss – Kovács – Szakály_A fenntartható fejlődés értékei és az egészségtudatos életstílus elemzése középiskolás diákok körében
Sustainable consumption is a megatrend influencing consumer habits today. Our research was carried out to find out information – with the help of international and national literature – about the general and differentiating characteristics and the size of the consumer group devoted to sustainable consumption. Our aim was also to sum up the economic importance of the segment. This “new type” of consumer-buyer group is called LOHAS (Lifestyle of Health and Sustainability) by professionals. An important feature of the segment is that they consider all the three pillars of sustainable development (economic, social and ecological) in their shopping decisions. LOHAS consumers live their life health-consciously. Their devotion to sustainability is reflected in purchasing environmental-friendly, socially responsible products. Besides this, it can also be claimed about them that they are early adopters and they are able to influence the opinion of their friends and family. They are less price-sensitive, and they are characteristically brand-loyal. These characteristics make them the attractive target of a lot of marketing activities. It is hard to describe the LOHAS lifestyle only with demographic features since their devotion to sustainable consumption is determined by mostly personal values and the individual’s value order. LOHAS lifestyle has five, well defined value categories that direct the individuals’ behavior. They are authentic values, health-conscious values, ethic values, individualist values and environmental-conscious values. The LOHAS group is also characterized by such a hybrid lifestyle in which different characteristics merge with each other. The LOHAS “phenomenon” is mostly characteristic of the western world, but it is becoming widespread in the Asian region’s consumer society. In the developed countries the size of the group may reach 25%. For today the approach and value order characterizing the LOHAS consumer’s lifestyle have appeared within the Hungarian population as well. Hungarian researchers estimate the size of this group different – between 4 and 30% – depending on the values expected during segmentation. The LOHAS trend influences all the branches of economy calling companies for innovation that meets the needs of the consumers who prefer hybrid lifestyle, and for environmental and social responsibility. However, the strongest influence appears in the food industry. It is worth mentioning that some members of the tertiary sector have also realized the opportunities lying behind them. Besides the economic importance of the LOHAS consumer group, it is important to mention that their inner values and views envisage a healthier society and a cleaner and more livable environment.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2015. 2 (1) 3-9.
01_Szakály Z. – Pető K. – Jasák H._A fenntartható fogyasztás iránt elkötelezett fogyasztói csoport, a LOHAS szegmens jellemzői_final
Until the 1990s, those exchange processes were in the focus of marketing in which the producers had the bargaining power in their hands. After realizing the limited sources and the natural challenges at the beginning of the twenty-first century, today marketing experts are interested in global issues like sustainable development and sustainable consumption. The aim of our research was to define the size of the Hungarian LOHAS consumer group by analysing its lifestyle based on sustainable values. This has been achieved in three steps. At first, the appearance of sustainable values was analysed using factor analysis. Secondly, we made the value-based lifestyle segmentation of the Hungarian consumers with the help of k-means analysis, and finally, with further segmentation, we estimated the size of the consumer group that is the most devoted to LOHAS values. In order to achieve the set objective, a nationwide representative questionnaire-based survey was carried out involving 1000 people in Hungary. During the value-orientated research, 25 lifestyle statements were drawn up. The 25 statements were grouped around 5 aspects which were the following: environmental consciousness, health consciousness, ethical values, authentic values and individualism. Results reveal that in the value order of Hungarian consumers, the characteristics showing in the direction of sustainability are present and they are separated in six value categories. They are individualist values, authentic values, environmental consciousness, ethical (competence) values, health consciousness and ethical (corporate) values. From among the value dimensions, authentic values, health and environmental consciousness, as well as ethical corporate behaviour are especially important to Hungarian consumers. According to our results five value-based segments could be separated which are Uninvolved elderly people (16.4%), Young trend followers (32.1%), Young environmentally conscious people (18.6%), Ethical traditionalists (22.6%) and also Disappointed pessimists (10.3%). The biggest cluster, the group of Young trend followers, reflects the characteristics of the LOHAS consumers’ lifestyle the most. Yet, this segment cannot entirely be regarded a consumer group devoted to LOHAS values. The biggest heterogeneity can be observed based on the ethical (competence) values of Young trend followers, and a further segmentation of this group was considered necessary to be able to ascertain the rate of the most devoted LOHAS consumers. The third sub-cluster that overestimates the ethical (competence) statements the most can be identified with the LOHAS consumer group. Based on the results of our research, their rate is 8.7% within the Hungarian population. Further research is necessary to find out whether the situation of value orientation in the other Eastern European countries is similar to that in Hungary, where the social and the cultural backgrounds show many similarities.
The Hungarian Journal of Nutrition Marketing. 2015. 2 (1) 11-30.
02_Szakály Z. – Pető K. – Jasák H._A LOHAS szegmens mérete és jellemzői Magyarországon_final